Thursday, March 19, 2020

Inequality and Development

Inequality and Development Introduction Development is slow but gradual process that is marked by changes in lifestyle, processes, technology, policies and other aspects that affect human life. Human beings desire to use modern technology to ensure there is efficiency in production processes. In addition, they hope to move very fast from one place to another and access information within a very short period (Muilanovic 27).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Inequality and Development specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These and other aspects of modern societies propel people to use various ways of ensuring that they are placed in strategic positions to acquire wealth, power and influence that will help them to control others. This has led to inequalities in various spheres and there are fears that competition for the available limited resources will push people to use unethical and illegal survival tactics. Inequality occurs in various forms, incl uding social, political and economic and each of these aspects has significant impacts on the society. This essay presents different ways that show the impacts of inequality on development. Definitions Inequality refers to unproportional and unfair allocation, access, distribution and provision of social, political and economic resources to people (Duflo 9). This means that this term covers all aspects that show unfair consideration given to people of a particular group. This vice makes some people to be perceived to be more special than others yet this is not supposed to be the case. Equality exists when fair measures are used to allocate people resources and ensure every person gets what they deserve. Development refers to the progress made by individuals and is usually marked by improving living conditions, infrastructure, economy and access to quality social services (Duflo 11). Development is measured by comparing events and situations between two or more societies during diffe rent periods. This aspect may be positive or negative depending on its impacts on the society. Negative development means that the society is experiencing serious challenges in promoting equality among its members. On the other hand, positive development means that people have equal and reasonable access to resources and thus nobody violates their rights and freedoms (Greig 32). Growth refers to visible changes that occur in the society as a result of equality or inequality and how their impacts on people. Inequality has serious impacts on growth and development and that is why nations and individuals have established various ways of eliminating this vice.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Types of Inequalities There are three types of inequalities in all societies and their causes and effects are similar. These classes originate from the issues that create differenc es among people, and that is why they are named after their subjects. Social inequality presents issues that affect people at the family and community level and this means that it is concerned with how people interact with others (Stewart 41). This includes gender, sports, communication, jobs and roles of different members in the society. Economic inequality involves unfair allocation of factors of production and resources that are important in increasing food production, creating employment opportunities and improving economies of nations. Political inequality refers to the unfair preferences that exist in the allocation and distribution of power within a region. This includes appointments, initiation of development projects, diplomatic relations, and other aspects that regulate government activities. The impacts of these inequalities may be similar or different depending on their occurrence, victims and conditions that promote them. Impacts of Inequality on Development The segment ation of aggregate demand in an economic system is a significant impact of inequality in the economy of a society. People in the middle class struggle to fit in the superfluous consumption groups and this force them to strain their budgets at the expense of basic needs like proper food and shelter. This group earns a low income, but cannot be satisfied with the way it lives. Therefore, it has to seek for various ways of ensuring that it does not fall into the low class category by struggling to emulate the behavior of the upper group. High consumerism usually takes place in regions that are close to poor and marginalized communities that have poor standards of living and cannot get proper food, medical attention or clean water (Muilanovic 33). The desire for secondary goods by the middle and upper classes and that for basic needs for the lower category triggers an imbalance between consumption and demand. This leads to wastage and misuse of resources by the rich and this undermines social cohesion in the society. The irritating consumerism of the rich and the shortage of basic needs in low income societies lead to the multiplication of conflicts between the rich and poor. In addition, it leads to increase in insecurity because the poor will struggle to get what they can afford through criminal activities like mugging, robbery and corruption (Sicherl 71). The existence of democratic governance becomes impossible because the marginalized groups will resist attempts to persuade them that the government has their interests at heart.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Inequality and Development specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Irresponsible environmental destruction practices will increase because the poor and rich populations will be struggling to utilize resources, particularly, non renewable to satisfy their needs. The structure of the production system will be affected by unskilled laborers becaus e of lack of money to pursue specialized training. It is very difficult for a society to develop if it cannot provide equal resources and opportunities for its people. Secondly, the supply and production system of a society will suffer if it allows inequality to exist. The high consumerism of the middle and upper classes and the high poverty levels of low income earners generate a low demand that cannot consume the goods produced by production systems that aim to expand their operations. This causes an imbalance between the level of consumption of goods and services and what the society produces. The market for goods and serviced produced through modern technology lack market and this exposes producers to stunted growth and some of them may be forced to close their companies (Kuznets 20). Development is blocked when investors spend a lot of money in production yet they cannot recover their capital because of low demand for their goods. In addition, there are possibilities of the dev elopment of a segmented demand that pushes production systems to produce goods and services that satisfy the few individuals that can afford to pay for expensive products. This enshrines a defective social stratum that protects the interests of those that have money to buy expensive goods. The middle and lower classes are usually forced to struggle to meet the high standards set by the bourgeoisies or recede to poverty and desperation. At the same time, the low middle-income earners limit the development of their production system because they constrain their producers to produce goods that meet their demands (Greig 44). Therefore, they cannot sell their products to the affluent communities because of their poor quality. In addition, producers at this level do not benefit from economies of scale, specialization, improved technology and skilled employees because they have inadequate capital to expand their operations. Therefore, a significant part of an enormous production potential will be sterilized at the bottom of the social pyramid. Capital formation will be limited to the production units that serve the upper class that has a dynamic market. Therefore, economic growth becomes stunted because of misdirected production capacity that will not produce adequate income to spur development. In addition, few businesses become capitalized and this restricts income distribution and the ability of a society to increase employment opportunities (Kloby 69). Therefore, social stability is affected because of inequalities and this compromises the security of citizens. These aspects become unstable and this threatens the survival of democratic governance.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, societies that have inequalities have low levels of savings and investments. Income and asset ownership inequality means that the upper class (usually very few individuals) recycles resources that should be invested in productive activities. They invest a significant part of their resources in speculative activities like hoarding and smuggling that are usually profitable compared to legal investments. The proletariats will be forced to buy their products at whichever price the bourgeoisie will deem necessary because they do not have alternatives. Secondly, this practice concentrates resources in the affluent sectors and this spurs consumerism and wastes resources that should be used for development purposes (Stewart 63). Economies should recycle resources by allowing money to move from one individual to another and create utilities. However, inequality concentrates money surpluses in a few hands and this reduces chances of recycling maximizing returns. People save their mo ney and use it for speculative activities that slow development in societies. These practices enable assets, income and savings to concentrate and be controlled by a few individuals and this prevents people from participating in economic activities that spur development because of limited resources and investment opportunities. In addition, they cause mismatches between production abilities of an economic structure and demand that arises from legal earnings and interests (Kloby 720. Therefore, the bourgeoisies will always have chances to manipulate financial institutions for their selfish interests and this creates favorable conditions for the occurrence of recurrent economic crises. In addition, science and technology are indispensable aspects that spur development in societies. These issues represent powerful leverages of contemporary growth because they enable people to simplify production processes. Market opportunities and scope expand permanently when people use discoveries an d innovations to improve their investments and enhance productivity. Science and technology focus on the expansion of knowledge and understanding various issues and this leads to efficiency in production processes. This means that market for sophisticated technology and skills will expand and fetch good returns because people hope to improve their investments (Pritchet par. 4). Therefore, they will invest their resources and concentrate them on technological aspects to ensure that they are able to defeat their competitors. They ignore social and environmental needs that are important in determining the future of people living in low income areas. The need to explore scientific innovations is usually driven by motivations to control the instruments of economic production and not maximization of returns and income. Therefore, the requirements of concentrated markets condition the scientific and technological results that are expected to benefit the society. Few individuals gain at the expense of environmental degradation, displacement of populations and a reduction of arable land in poverty stricken regions. Social cohesion, security and proper governance are indispensable issues that enable societies to develop. Equality means that all members of the society get equal burdens, efforts and results of their actions. However, some groups, especially the upper and middle income earners, do not take their responsibilities and they dump onto the poor the costs they are supposed to bear. It is very disturbing that they are the ones who get and enjoy the largest portion of the results of economic activities in their societies. Those in power use subtle mechanisms that cannot be understood by the poor that are usually illiterate, unskilled and inexperienced to perceive legal and economic interpretations. These uncouth mechanisms include regressive tax systems that ensure the cost of producing goods is met be consumers and differential access to learning and health care institutions (Kuznets 59). In addition, some of them withhold information about public work contracts or investment opportunities because of their proximity to influential politicians, investors and businesses. Social inequality brings different standards of living within a society by giving some people greater opportunities while neglecting others. This causes resentments and misgivings in societies that are supposed to be united; therefore, they hardly make any progress because of poor social cohesion that discourages dialogue and meaningful interactions. There is no way a hungry person can sit on the same table with an individual that has never understood the meaning of hunger. Social cohesion is weakened when oppressed individuals struggle to balance their lives with those of the upper and middle classes. Conflicts between the rich and poor become a daily routine and this creates enmity in the society. Therefore, it becomes difficult for a society to develop if its members have unsettled differences and each group thinks that it deserves better treatment than the other. Lastly, sustainable development is important in ensuring that societies achieve their objectives and everybody has access to quality and adequate goods and services. Inequality enables few individuals to control all factors of production and thus the poor have little say in development matters (Pritchet par. 7). However, sometimes governments and institutions intervene in these situations and offer loans or incentives to individuals to offset economic imbalances. It is necessary to explain that these loans are serviced by tax payers and this means that there is no rational for exposing them to unnecessary budgets when they are unable to afford basic needs. In addition, the bourgeoisies are the ones that control financial institutions and the interests gained on loans are shared with them because they are usually the majority shareholders in banks. People over borrow money from financial ins titutions and this means that they will have nothing to invest in income generating activities (Sicherl 86). The artificial maintenance of demand and supply balance is sustained by successive borrowing that exposes individuals to risks of bankruptcy. Societies cannot develop if they keep depending on loans to offset inequalities between the rich and poor. Conclusion Inequality hinders development because it limits investments and wastes the production potential of individuals and nations. In addition, it hinders small businesses from enjoying economies of scale and this means they will continue to produce cheap and poor goods. Moreover, it promotes irresponsible consumerism and creates conflicts between the rich and poor. Lastly, it destroys the environment and force people to rely on high interest loans to access quality education and medical services. Duflo, Esther. Women Empowerment and Economic Development. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research Press, 2011. Print. Grei g, Alastair. Challenging Global Inequality: Development Theory and Practice in the  21st Century. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Print. Kloby, Jerry. Inequality, Power, and Development: Issues in Political Sociology. New York: Humanity Books, 2003. Print. Kuznets, Simon. Economic Growth and Income Inequality. New York: Wiley, 2012. Print. Muilanovic, Branko. The Haves and the Have-Nots: A Brief and Idionsyncratic History of  Global Inequality. New York: Basic Books, 2012. Print. Pritchet, Lant. â€Å"Divergence, Big Time†, Journal of Economics Perspectives. 31 Oct. 1997. Web. www.cas.umt.edu/econ/documents/courses/advecondev/prichett Sicherl, Pavle. World Inequalities in Human Development Index. New York: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2014. Print. Stewart, France. Horizontal Inequalities: A Neglected Dimension of Development:  Center for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity. Oxford: University of Oxford Press, 2011. Print.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

8 Unique Nursing Careers You Didnt Know Existed

8 Unique Nursing Careers You Didnt Know Existed There are a thousand nursing specialties out there, but most people only know of a handful. If you want to choose nursing as your career, but you want to do something a little different than working in a hospital or office setting, then you might want to consider a few of these more obscure nursing positions. Think outside the hospital! 1. Legal Nursing ConsultantIf you have an interest in law as well as nursing, you could consider becoming certified as an LNC. You’ll work with lawsuits and worker’s comp cases, or as a sort of in-house medical expert as the go-to on terminology, medical practices, and health care. Certification isn’t always required, but it will certainly give you a boost.2. Forensic NursingYou’ll still be treating patients and dressing wounds, but you’ll also be assessing patients to determine whether or not a crime has been committed and collecting evidence. This job might even involve identifying bodies. It’s likely not as glamorous as T.V. shows make it out to be, but still very cool, and you get to play your part in making sure justice is served.3. Cruise Ship NursingSee the world, sail the seas, and live your life where others only vacation. All you have to do is treat the thousands of patients sailing around with you at any given time. The workload is diverse, the people are from all over, the perks are undeniable: you’ll get free room and board plus good vacation time after long stretches of work.4. Camp NursingLove the great outdoors? Were you a camp kid back in the day? Sign up to be the nurse at a summer or wilderness camp to deal with sick campers. You won’t make that much money, comparatively speaking, but you will lead a much more relaxed life (and work life) and get to work with kids, if that’s your preference.5. Flight/Transport NursingRural areas don’t have the kinds of medical resources for emergencies that larger metropolitan areas do. The long ambulance ri des or helicopter flights often require a nurse to ride along to help. Get yourself certified as a CFRN (Certified Flight Registered Nurse) for this always exciting gig. And bonus: the money is pretty great!6. Nursing InformaticsWant to be a nurse but find that you also really love geeking out about technology? You could work in large medical facilities or private consulting firms, keeping up with the newest technology to optimize patient care.7. Parish NursingBring your spirituality and faith to work as a parish nurse, where you can help your patients improve their physical health as well as their overall spiritual well-being. This can be a very rewarding career for the right kind of nurse who wants to serve a specific community. This type of nursing is most common in Christian denominations, but others are starting to pop up as well.8. Hyperbaric NursingThis field is in surprisingly high demand. Hyperbaric nurses treat patients in decompression chambers to relieve multiple kinds o f very serious symptoms. You’ll work with cutting-edge treatments and be at the forefront of helping with this growing medical practice, but this job does come with some physical risk, given how much exposure you’ll have to the decompression chambers.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Cultural Homogenisation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Cultural Homogenisation - Essay Example Cultural homogenization has resulted due to the mix up cultures where there has been development one culture in the world. It is one of the effects of increased globalization of culture. Cultural homogenization defines the aspect of achieving one culture which is used to as a bench of all other cultures in the world. As the wave of globalization takes on the world, there has been increased mix up of people and in the same way mix up of culture. One of the areas in which people have interacted most is in the area of tourism and hospitality industry. Global tourism has been on the rise in the recent past which has seen the growth of the industry by large margins. Global tourism refers to the aspect of people visiting foreign countries for leisure, business or for other purposes. Most of the people participating in global tourism have been doing so for holidays although in the recent past there has been increased global tourism for other purposes like medical tourism, cultural tourism, business tourism, and others. Hospitality industry has been one of the areas that have enabled global tourism to grow at such rate. Hospitality industry is mainly engaged in provision of service to those who are not in their homes which defined in the context of tourism will mean those who are touring other areas awa y from their homes. This is one of the industries which have been serving diversity in the world as it is involved in serving people of diverse origins. Therefore it is one of the areas that have been able to achieve cultural homogeneity as it employee's people of diverse cultures and also service the same kind of people. Examples of hospital industry are hotels, lodging, lodges, and others. Modernity is an aspect that refers to the modern way of life. The concept of modernity was coined in order to reflect the changing life of the world which was being reflected in many things. But this has been overrun by the post modernity period which is marked by the current wave of globalization and in which the focus has shifted from observing the changes taking place in the world towards achievement of standardized way of doing things in the world. (Carley 1998, p. 43; Castles 1996, p. 81) Background After the Second World War in 1945 there were marked changes in the world. There was increased response to the concept of having one world which was united in solving many problems that the world was facing. There was marked development of modern society since 1945. One way in which the society was coming together was through the formation of the United Nations immediately after the war. This was however a political arrangement of nations. There was systematic development of a modern society which was increasingly becoming responsive to the needs of human life. The society was changing political as we have shown above and also in technology. The market was as well changing as corporation started spreading their wings to foreign countries. There was marked development in the production process. There was marked development of fordism which was mass production and the markets became more open and countries found no need to have closed markets. As a result the concept to post-fordism was later developed with was change in the production process. Post-fordism was based on a model of market production which was dictated by the demands in the market. In his regard, there was less utilization of the house

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Heroin Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Heroin - Research Paper Example People are moving from the abuse of simple drugs to abuse of hard and more dangerous drugs (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2013). In the past alcohol and tobacco were the most abused drugs. However, recently more complex and hazardous drugs such as cocaine and heroin have gained dominance and are the most abused drugs in USA. This paper ill discuss abuse of heroin in the USA and will analyze the available statistics as well as the effects of the drug on the abuser. According to the NSDUH, the number of people using heroin in the year 2012 was about 669,000 (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2014). The number had increased by more than double as compared to the statistics done in 2007. Most of the drug abusers of heroin are of the ages between 18and 25. According to the research done in 2012, the number of new users was 156,000, and this indicated that the abuse of the drug was increasing at an alarming rate. The statistic done by NSBUH proved that there was a reduced abuse of the drug for people aged between eight years and twelve years (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2014). A report by the WHO showed that, the numbers of people who were admitted in USA hospitals due to heroin abuse was alarming. According to their research done in 2002, the found out that the number of admitted people due to heroin abuse was 214,000. A follow-up research done in 2012 proved that the number of hospitalized people had grown by 50%. This statistic was interpreted to mean that heroin use had doubled in a period of ten years. Previously, heroin abuse was only in urban areas but recently it has spread to rural areas. 11% of all the heroin abusers in 2012 were all from rural communities such as St Louis and Chicago (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2014). Frequent us of heroine leads to addiction which is a very challenging to stop the habit. Any attempts to quit abuse of heroin leads to the patient experiencing severe withdrawal symptoms. The extent to

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Raymond Williams And Post Colonial Studies Cultural Studies Essay

Raymond Williams And Post Colonial Studies Cultural Studies Essay Twentieth century literary critic Raymond Williams was one of the most reputable, yet contested scholars from the British New Left. Once dubbed our best man in the New Left by his contemporaries, Williamss reputation in a post colonial context is less secure.  [1]  Patrick Brantlinger said it best: Williams was thoroughly the representative man. He was the voice of the ordinary, the voice of the working-class, the voice of Wales, the voice of British socialism, the conscience of Britain and of Europe. He understood that his life mattered because it was ordinary, and representative.  [2]  However, the early 1980s signified the shift in political and economic relations between western and non-western countries through post-colonialism, including former British colonies.  [3]  Moreover, post-colonialism served as an avenue to recover alternative ways of knowing and understanding or simply those other voices as alternatives to dominant western constructs.  [4]  While Raym ond Williams provides British colonial commentary, primarily in his seminal work, The Country and the City, it was in the periphery of his grander cultural theory. Scholars within the Birmingham School and post colonial studies have debated the implications of this, including Williams himself. Consequently, this essay will outline the scholarly debate regarding Raymond Williamss alleged ambivalence towards British colonialism and race within his conception of culture. This will allow for an examination of Williamss work within the context of postcolonial studies, particularly the legacy of his cultural theory in a modern context. Raymond Williamss analysis in The Country and City certainly coincides with postcolonial theories emphasis on geography, whether in conversations around spaces, centers, peripheries or borders.  [5]  This analysis is especially significant because as argued by Anthony Alessandrini, postcolonial theory has benefited from the Marxist and Marxist-influenced analyses undertaken by figures involved in the post-Second World war movements against imperialism and for national liberation.  [6]  Alessandrini attributed the 1970s and 1980s political work and cultural analysis of writers like Raymond Williams, Stuart Hall and Paul Gilroy for influencing major figures in postcolonial studies such as Franz Fanon and Edwards Said.  [7]  Therefore, as Alessandrini continued, We would need to look more closely at the historical circumstances under which the field of postcolonial studies has arisen, and especially at the sorts of strategic decisions involved in the adoption or rejection of particular theoretical paradigms.  [8]  Paul Giles would certainly agree as he adds, It would be disingenuous to ignore the fact that postcolonial scholarship in its contemporary guise has as one of its enabling conditions of possibilityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦the increasing attention paid to issues of subalternity and hegemony by forms of cultural Marxism such as those of Antonio Gramsci and Raymond Williams.  [9]  Consequently, this paper is framed around this very approach in regards to the work of Raymond Williams. While few would question the merit or significance of Raymond Williams and his nuanced study of the nineteenth century British rural working class in both Culture and Society and the Long Revolution, there has been significant criticism of Williams due in part to his silence regarding British colonialism. This has proved to be disturbing for some, and certainly problematic for a number of Williamss contemporaries and successors even within the British New Left. Gauri Viswanathan provides an exceptional layout of the criticisms against Raymond Williams and the British New Left in general to conceptualize culture and imperialism. He outlines that within British cultural Marxist tradition since Williams, the conception of British nationalism has been used interchangeably with issues of race, colonialism, or imperialism.  [10]  This is quite evident in Raymond Williamss Keywords (1976), in which the definition of race is not a separate entry of its own, but is distinctively tied to i deas of nationalism. Williams writes: Nationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦originally with a primary sense of a racial group rather than a politically organized grouping. Since there is obvious overlap between these senses, it is not easy to date the emergence of the predominant modern sense of a political formation. The persistent overlap between racial grouping and political formation has been important, since claims to be a nation, and to have national rights, often envisaged the formation of a nation in the political sense, even against the will of an existing political nation which included and claimed the loyalty of this [racial] grouping. It could be and is still often said, by opponents of nationalism, that the basis of the groups claim is racial. (Race, of uncertain origin, had been used in the sense of a common stock from C16 [sixteenth century]. Racial is a C19 [nineteenth-century] formation. In most C19 uses racial was positive and favourable, but discriminating and arbitrary theories of race were becoming more explicit in t he same period, generalizing national distinctions in supposedly radical scientific differences. In practice, given the extent of conquest and domination, nationalist movements have been as often based on an existing but subordinate political grouping as upon a group distinguished by a specific language or by a supposed racial community.  [11]   Gauri Viswanathan attributes Raymond Williamss understanding of British nationalism as less of a theoretical oversight or blindness than an internal restraint with complex methodological and historical origins.  [12]  Citing Raymond Williamss conception of base and superstructure, Viswanathan dissects Williamss methodology and level of comfort with Marxist framework. While Viswanathan highlights the dynamic nature of Williamss work as seemingly accommodating a broadened analysis of culture to include colonial relations, he ultimately concedes that Williams continually resisted that kind of refinement of his work.  [13]  Moreover, Viswanathan continued that this base and superstructure framework restricted him [Williams] to solely economic determinist outcomes and pointed to the inefficacy of Williamss cultural materialism.  [14]  Hence Viswanathan concluded that Williamss model was inherently unable to accommodate British imperialism as a function of metropolitan culture due to the internal restraints of his troubled self-conscious with Marxian  [15]  frameworks. Forest Pyle presented a similar commentary in his essay, Raymond Williams and the Inhuman Limits of Culture. Pyle argues that since language is a human instrument it is consequently inhuman for Williams to consider culture as the mapping of a particular historical configuration and of social, economic, and political life.  [16]  Moreover, Williamss cultural theory is beyond repair and cannot simply be corrected  [17]  due to the intertwined nature of culture and community within Williamss work. Therefore Pyle concludes that Raymond Williamss sense of culture cannot account for the historical and structural forms of colonialism and its aftermath. Pyle then goes a set further than Viswanathan in asserting that this points to not merely a personal limitation but a structural limitation that is explicitly exhibited by Williamss unapologetic understanding of empire.  [18]   Both Pyle and Viswanathan provide interesting critiques in light of Raymond Williamss 1973 essay, Base and Superstructure. Within this essay Williams stated that he had no use or static or highly determinedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ model(s) in which the rules of society are highlighted to the exclusion of the processional and historical.  [19]  Yet as both Pyle and Viswanathan conclude, Raymond Williamss analysis does not apply this cultural materialism model within an imperial or colonial context. Viswanathan indentified Raymond Williams as having an internal restraint due to his understanding of British culture and national identity.  [20]  Therefore Williamss conception of national culture remained hermetically sealed from the continually changing political imperatives of empire.  [21]  For example in The Country and the City, Raymond Williams classifies imperialism as the last mode of the city and countryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦within the larger context of colonial expansion in which ev ery idea and every image was consciously and unconsciously affected.  [22]  Ultimately, however, British influence extended outward rather than that the periphery had a functional role in determining internal developments.  [23]  Consequently, Williams could only conclude that Britain achieved dominance through the power of a fully formed cultural and institutional system which was transplanted and internalized within British colonies.  [24]   Unsurprisingly, Raymond Williamss cohorts within the Birmingham have attributed this kind of colonial analysis to racism or an egregious form of Eurocentrism on Williamss part. This is especially the case for those involved in black cultural studies, namely Stuart Hall and Paul Gilroy. Stuart Hall openly critiqued the limitations of the Birmingham cultural theory in dealing with the other during his tenure as program director in the late 1960s. Hall found that the issues race and cultural relations as advocated by his predecessors were particularly oppressive to minority groups, therefore highlighting a departure of the School itself from Raymond Williams.  [25]  In Cultural Studies and Its Theoretical Legacies, Hall discusses the question of race in cultural studies as a major break in the Birmingham School. He emphasizes: Actually getting cultural studies to put on its own agenda the critical questions of race, the politics of race, the resistance to racism, the critical questions of cultural politics, was itself a profound theoreticalà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.and sometimes bitterly contested internal struggle against a resounding but unconscious silence. A struggle which continued in what has since come to be known only in the rewritten historyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.of the Centre for Cultural Studies.  [26]   Paul Gilroy, who studied with Stuart Hall at the Birmingham School in England, focused on postcolonial modes of deracination within transatlantic culture.  [27]  As Paul Giles states, Paul Gilroy took issue with what he perceived as traditional racism and ethnocentrism of English cultural studies,  [28]  citing in particular the tendencies of E. P. Thompson and Raymond Williams to systematically omit blacks from their analysis on British cultural identity.  [29]  Therefore, Gilroy viewed America as a counterpoint to British cultural analysis, and a means of disturbing any narrowly ethnic definition of racial authenticity or the purity of cultures on either side of the Atlantic.  [30]  Gilroy juxtaposed black culture in Britain with American black protest movements, in order to discredit conceptions of race, people or nation as advocated by Raymond Williams. In fact, Gilroy presents one of the most extreme critiques of Raymond Williams, charging him with proposing a ne w racism in his analysis of culture.  [31]   New Left scholar Benita Perry highlights that the new racism advocated by Raymond Williams was especially problematic for Paul Gilroy, who argued that New Left efforts in the 1960s to reclaim patriotism and nationalism resulted in ethnic absolutism.  [32]  She continues that the concept of culture itself became a site of struggles over the meaning of race, nation, and ethnicity for scholars interested in minority studies such as Gilroy.  [33]  The main issue for Gilroy was that Raymond Williamss conception of culture, with its emphasis on long experience, deflected the nation away from race, setting the course for British Cultural Marxists in general to write irresponsibly and quite ambivalently about race.  [34]  Additionally, this excluded blacks from the significant entities due to Williamss silence on racism, which for Gilroy has its own historical relationship with ideologies of Britishness and national identity.  [35]  This is very similar to the argument presen ted by Gauri Viswanathan earlier on the influence of Raymond Williams on British imperial and national scholarship.  [36]   Beyond overt notions Eurocentrism, Williamss critics vehemently opposed his understanding of the long [British] experience deriving from rooted settlement, which excluded colonized groups and immigrants from the significant entity.  [37]  Paul Gilroy notes that the most egregious silence in Williamss work is his refusal to examine the concept of racism which has its own historic relationship with ideologies of Englishness, Britishness and national belonging.  [38]  He adds, There can be little doubt that blacks are familiar with the legacy of British bloody mindedness in which he takes great pride. From where they stand it is easier to see that its present day cornerstones are racism and nationalism, its foundations slavery and imperialism.  [39]  Therefore, Gilroy concludes that cultures are not isolated from each other as Raymond Williams seemly implied in The Country and the City, but are linked to the persistent crisscrossing of national boundaries.  [40]   Additionally, Paul Gilroy discussed the implications of Raymond Williamss work for peoples of color residing in or immigrating to England. In direct response to Williamss position on lived experience and rooted settlement, Gilroy pointedly asked: How long is long enough to become a genuine Brit in the context of lived and formed identities?  [41]  Gilroy argues, that Williamss favored the exclusion of immigrating peoples of color and contributed to a new racism grounded in a discourse of nation, focused on the enemy within and without race.  [42]  This new racism is rooted on cultural rather than biological determination, proving them undeserving of citizenship and creating authentic and inauthentic types of national belonging.  [43]  This was a position that his Birmingham School program director, Stuart Hall agreed with as well. Raymond Williamss requirements for British citizenship had major implications for those colonial subjects of the Commonwealth outside of Britain, such as Jamaican scholar Stuart Hall. These groups lacked the settled kind of identity and would certainly not qualify under this sort of citizenship as advocated by Raymond Williams as well.  [44]  Raymond Williamss commentary in Towards 2000 favored lived and formed identities, preferably those of a settled kind, for practical formation of social identity has to be lived.  [45]  Williams continues: Real social identities are formed by working and living together, with some real place and common interest to identify with.  [46]  Unsurprisingly, Stuart Hall retorts: I am the sugar at the bottom of the English cup of tea. I am the sweet tooth, the sugar plantations that rotted generations of English childrens teeth. There are thousands of others beside me that are, you know, the cup of tea itself. Because they dont grow it in Lan cashire, you know. Not a single tea plantation exists within the United Kingdom? What could Williams say to this-this outside history that is inside the history of the English?  [47]   Donald Nonini adds to this discussion in his analysis of Stuart Halls critique of Raymond Williams. He writes: The issue here for Stuart Hall, is the requirements of real and lived social identities, and the manner of exclusion of recent immigrants, who although residence of England, have only been there for a few generations. Clearly they do not share the long historical association with the land and forcible integration upon it as Williams required for real citizenship.  [48]  This had major implications on Stuart Halls work within the Birmingham School because he could not ignore the racialized aspects of Raymond Williamss cultural theory. In his essay, Culture, Community, and Nation, Hall equates Williamss cultural belongingness through actual, lived relationships of place, culture and community, amongst politically and culturally subordinate peoples as a replacement for biological determinism and coded language for race and color.  [49]  Therefore, Stuart Hall agrees wit h Paul Gilroy that there is overt ethnic absolutism within Raymond Williams work. Moreover, Hall concludes that post-colonial diasporas of the late-modern experience will never be unified culturally because they are products of cultures of hybridity.  [50]  Hall equates this hybridity to a diasporic consciousness, which meant that non- retain strong links with the traditions and places of their origins while adapting to their present circumstances, so that they can produce themselves anew and differently.  [51]   In defense of Raymond Williams, Andrew Milner argued that both Stuart Hall and Paul Gilroy misinterpreted Williamss position on race, citing Towards 2000 as an example.  [52]  Milner writes that Williams was not only vocal about race, but advocated the kind of grassroots social movements that would raise awareness for the heterogeneous strands of English society.  [53]  In fact, Williams describes anti-globalization social movements as resources of hope.  [54]  Additionally, Milner relates Williams analysis of social movements to his understanding of class. He adds that for Williams, neo- imperialist issues led into the central systems of the industrial-capitalist mode of production and its system of classes.  [55]  He supports his position quoting Williams discussion of rooted settlements in Towards 2000: Rooted settlements were alienated superficialities of legal definitions of citizenship with the more substantial reality of deeply grounded and active social iden tities.'  [56]  This interpretation, according to Milner, was problematic for future Birmingham School scholars, particularly Paul Gilroy, who concluded that Williamss authentic and inauthentic types of national belonging followed the same racist rhetoric of British conservatives.  [57]  Milner, however, maintains that this was a distortion of Williamss original argument. He ultimately concludes that future scholars should reexamine Williamss position on race.  [58]   Similar to Milner, Donald Nonini and Christopher Prendergast presents Towards 2000 as the best evidence of Williams conception of racism and visible others in a post colonial context. Nonini cites Williamss observation that the most recent immigrations of more visibly different peoplesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦have misrepresented and obscured pasts.  [59]  Nonini continues that Raymond Williams did account for the differences within British culture and the contested nature of citizenship. For example, Williams wrote that when newly arriving immigrants interacted with true Englishmanà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦angry confusions and prejudices were evident because of the repression of rural culture and people within Great Britain.  [60]  Nonini interprets this as a sign of Williams internalized colonist sentiment.  [61]  Therefore, Raymond Williams understood racism as the result of the hostility between the formerly integrated peoples and the immigrating more visibly different peoples due to colon ial ideology.  [62]  Moreover, Andrew Milner continues that Raymond Williams did not exclude blacks from a significant social identity with their white neighbors, as Paul Gilroy suggests highlighting Williamss analysis of rural mining communities in Towards 2000.  [63]  Additionally, Stuart Halls assertion that Raymond Williams not only questioned, but ruled out the possibility that relationships between blacks and whites in many inner-city communities can be actual and sustained is even more unfounded when analyzing Williamss work in Towards 2000.  [64]   Christopher Prendergast clarifies that Raymond Williams did not consider this as actual racism, but a profound misunderstanding due to purely social and cultural tensions between the English working class and who they perceived as outsiders.  [65]  While Williams seems to side with the ordinary, working-class man, Prendergast does specify that Williams did counter nativist claims in his conclusion that foreigners and blacks were just as British as we are.  [66]  Therefore, Prendergast maintains that Williams understood the limitations of a merely legal definition of what it is to be British. He adds that Williams felt that attempts to resolve issues around social identities were often colluded with the alienated superficialities of the nation which were often limited to the functional terms of the modern ruling class.  [67]  Ultimately, both Prendergast and Milner conclude that Raymond Williams was not oblivious to racial relations, citing Williams again: It is by working and living together as free as may be from external ideological definitions, whether divisive or universalist, that real social identities are formed.  [68]   While Milner and Prendergast offer an apologetic interpretation of Raymond Williams and colonial relations, Paul Giles and Forest Pyle emphasize Williams conception of culture as the liability in his analysis. In his essay, Virtual Americas: The Internationalization of American Studies and the Ideology of Exchange, Paul Giles cites Raymond Williamss idealized conception of community as an empowering and socially cohesive forceas problematic.  [69]  Williamss stubborn insistence in holistic communities and rooted settlements creates significant challenges when dealing with imperial relationships. Seemingly, Raymond Williamss cultural analysis accommodates a broadened conceptualization of culture that is inclusive of colonizer-colonized relations, yet this never materializes. Instead, Williamss understanding of the cultural experience becomes overtly exclusive of colonial others, minorities, and immigrants due to his naturalized and geographically localized notion of English nation al culture.  [70]  As outlined previously with Forest Pyle, Williamss appropriation of culture as inhuman and fictional due to the pervasive and elusive nature of the term itself in relation to colonial analysis.  [71]   Post colonial scholar R. Radhakrishnan provides a critique of Raymond Williamss cultural theory as a means of deconstructing Eurocentrism in a post colonial context. While Radhakrishnan acknowledges the insight provided in The Country and the City, he argues that Williamss continual self-reflexivity posits him in a contradictory position when it relates to colonialism and culture. Therefore his commentary becomes both oppositional-marginal and dominant-central and ultimately coincides with a demonstrably metropolitan voice.  [72]  As a result, those within the margins or periphery of dominant British culture are too easily and prematurely adjusted and accommodated within what Williams considered as a connecting process towards a common history.'  [73]  Radhakrishnan maintains that what differentiates post colonial scholars such as Edward Said or Paratha Chatterjee from Raymond Williams is their awareness and articulation of subaltern marginality that often negates Williamss n otion of a successfully transplanted method of cultural commonality.  [74]  In that sense British nationalism or culture can be enacted in the postcolonial context to the detriment of indigenous, peripheral cultures because it fails to speak for them. Therefore, Radhakrishnan concludes that Williamss cultural analysis is incapable of dealing with the nuances of either a colonial or post colonial world. Nevertheless, numerous scholars have worked to

Friday, January 17, 2020

Heat of Solidification Lab-Writeup

Introduction In chemistry, substances require a certain amount of energy in the form of average kinetic energy (temperature) to freeze. To reach the temperature a substance requires to freeze, it must lose a certain amount of heat energy (a form of energy transferred from one object to another, because of a temperature difference). When a substance reaches its freezing point and begins to freeze, its temperature remains constant until it is completely frozen.However, in order to melt a substance must go through a energy change, creating the problem, â€Å"What energy changes occur when a liquid solidifies? †. To solve the problem, a hypothesis was proposed, stating â€Å"When a substance begins to solidify, it releases heat energy, because a substance must reach its heat of solidification (heat required to freeze) by losing a certain amount of heat, in order to solidify†. In order to test this hypothesis, a experiment was performed. Materials and MethodsIn the experimen t, the materials required were 1 wax sample in a test tube with the weight of the test tube labeled, a 250 mL beaker, a ringstand, a wire gauze, a graduated cylinder, a Bunsen Burner, a styrofoam calorimeter, and a thermometer. To perform the experiment, first the calorimeter was filled with 100 mL of water using a graduated cylinder, and the temperature of the water was found and recorded. Next, the beaker was filled 3/4 full with water and placed on the stand of the ringstand above a gently burning flame from the Bunsen Burner.Then, the mass of the test tube and wax was found and recorded, and the tube was placed in the beaker. After the wax in the tube melted, the tube was placed in the calorimeter, using a wire gauze. Lastly, once the wax in the tube solidified, the temperature of the water in the calorimeter was measured and recorded. Results Data Recorded During Experiment Mass wax and test tube41. 2 gramsTemperature water after heating26 ? C Mass empty test tube21. 0 gramsTem perature water before heating16 ? C Mass wax20. 2 gramsTemperature change10 ? CVolume water used100 mLMass of water used100 grams In the data table above, the mass of the wax was found by subtracting the mass of the empty test tube from the mass of the wax and test tube, giving an answer of 20. 2 g. To find the volume of water used, the mass of the water was multiplied by the density of the water, giving an answer of 100 g. To find the temperature change of the water, the temperature of the water after heating was subtracted by the temperature of the water before heating, giving an answer of 10 ? C. CalculationsAfter the experiment, the heat gained by the water from the wax in the calorimeter was calculated using the formula q = mC? T, where C equaled 4. 18 J/g * ? C. After the corresponding values were plugged in, the equation: 100g(4. 18 J/g * ? C. )(26? C-16? C) was created and solved for an answer of 4180 J of heat gained. After the amount of heat gained was found, the heat rele ased per gram of wax (heat of solidification) was calculated using the equation: 4180 J/20. 2g, giving an answer of 206. 93 J released per gram of wax.Although the heat released per gram of wax, found through the calculations, was 206. 93 J, the accepted value was 150. 0 J/g, because of this, the percent error was calculated using the formula:(measured – actualactual)100. After the values were plugged in, giving the equation:(206. 93 J/g – 150. 0 J/g150. 0 J/g)100, the percent error was found to be 38%. Discussion After the results were found, a conclusion was drawn up supporting the hypothesis. In the experiment, the temperature of the water increased from 16 ? C to 26 ? C after the wax solidified.This showed that the wax must have released heat energy, in order to cause the temperature of the water to change, due to temperature requiring heat to change. In a experiment, there are many different possible sources of scientific error. In the experiment that was preforme d, two possible sources of error were determined. The first source of error found was, the thermometer may have miss-measured the temperature of the water after the wax solidified, too high or low, which would have caused the heat of solidification to be too high or low.The other source of error was the wax may not have fully solidified, which would have made the heat of solidification too low, due to the wax not fully releasing its heat energy. To better understand the experiment that was preformed, summery questions were asked. The first question asked was, â€Å"The heat of combustion of wax is 45,000 J/g. Explain why there is such a large difference between the heat of solidification and heat of combustion in terms of the type of change†.To answer the question, a response was made: â€Å"Due to the heat of combustion of wax being the heat released from the chemical reaction between oxygen and wax, it is a chemical change and because the heat of solidification of wax is a physical change and chemical changes release a significantly larger amount of heat then physical changes, the heat of combustion of wax releases a much larger amount of heat†. The second question asked was â€Å"The amount of heat released by the solidifying was is equal in magnitude to the amount of heat that the wax absorbed when it melted.Explain why this is so in terms of the arrangement of molecules in liquids vs. solids†. To respond to this question the response: â€Å"In order to change the arrangement of molecules from a solid to a liquid state, the wax must absorb a certain amount of heat and in order to return to a solid state, it must release the energy it absorbed. In the last question, the following was asked: â€Å"Predict the effect of the change in the mass of the wax used or volume of water in the calorimeter on the following parameters.Assume all variables remain constant other then the one listed. If twice the amount of wax or half the amount of wa ter was used in the experiment, how would the temperature, heat absorbed by the water and the calculated heat of solidification change. Explain your predictions for the heat of solidification†. In the answer responding to the question, it was stated, â€Å"both the temperature and heat absorbed by the water would increase, however the heat of solidification would stay the same, due to the wax continuing to release the same amount of heat per gram of wax.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Why is Teamwork Important - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1309 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Public Relations Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Why teamwork is important Obviously we are referring to teams that cooperate and produce outcomes, teams that hit their mark; teams that work. We are referring to consorts, to bands of partners and to associates bound within a vision. This kind of teamwork is of prominent importance. An obvious, maybe rhetorical and definitely self-evident thesis that all of us share. In this text lies a venture to inductively disseminate, support, analyze and qualitatively define the underlying mechanism and the intrinsic meaning behind and beyond the self-evident nature of this statement. The goal of nature is abundance, whereas in business it is growth. These two concepts are different aspects of the same. Growth in business is an indicator of abundance, it is the tangible statement that we are doing things right and if this growth is sustainable, that we hold the one-way ticket to our organization’s permanence. There are many quantitative methods to regulate and s crutinize growth whereas it is one of the main anchors of notice with respect to financial analysis. At the same time corporate finance has appointed a discrete knowledge segment on sustainable growth. Greiner’s growth model, an effective qualitative instrument in managing said growth, the object of yet so many of our activities, analyzes six distinct phases that have to be monitored in order for an endeavor to grow and overcome respective crises and threats. All phases contain constituents wherein teamwork is important, but in the last two they are an absolute prerequisite, as growth is defined within these two phases by the responsiveness of teamwork and they are coined as â€Å"growth through collaboration† and â€Å"growth through alliances†. If we should seek out growth for our organization’s survival, thence we can only imagine the importance of teamwork, for the latter is a sine qua non of growth. One of Peter Drucker’s most famous quo tes is that in order to respond and perform in change we need joint performance through common goals and shared values, among other things. These shared values can be observed in the core of many successful management models, such as Mc Kinsey’s 7s framework: six separate elements orbit around the ever-important shared values that are our basic intangible fuel. For Geert Hofstede culture is the software of the world, and one of the major dimensions of culture is the track of individualism vs. collectivism. In the 70’s and 80’s American business was bent on finding out why Japanese operations are so successful, only to return with one definite and uncontested result: teamwork. When the world of business realized the necessity of departing from unequivocal Taylorist ideals and started to shift towards the human relations school, only a few main concepts were rooted in this change: those of employee involvement, synergies and socialization. Again, the force of t eamwork proved to provide the muscle for this evolution. Nowadays more than ever teamwork is considered as the main incentive vessel for employee commitment. Excellent firms hold a mechanism in place to promote group problem-solving and teamwork arrangements, whence the plurality of successful US firms is utilizing autonomous work teams to guide its everyday operations. Learning organizations with enviable core competencies and sustainable competitive advantages cannot come into being without a culture of sanctioning and promoting teamwork. As we can extract thus far, science has evolved to consider teams very important and successful business has put these ideas into practice. But maybe the scope is a bit broader. Maybe teamwork is important for life. Teamwork is about sharing (goals, workload, issues, all that is good and not so good, productive and counterproductive, functional and dysfunctional) and sharing is all about expression and truth: if we do not share our thoug hts, ideas, emotions and efforts then they rest enclosed in the individual that is us, do not enter the sphere of the explicit and thus, are not incarnated into the real. Sharing is the first step and the gateway to materializing our inner self and by extension our dreams. Sharing effectively and communicating with good faith are the vessels towards true and individual expression in this world. If we are interested in life and not in mere survival, thence sharing will provide the passport. So in this analytical approach we can already indicate an outstanding antithesis: in order to be individualistic and leave our personal mark in this world we need to share, we need our crew and we need to be players of a team. The argument above is further strengthened by the fact that human beings are nonetheless paradoxical creatures. We long to feel part of something bigger than us and at the same time that we alone are critical within a system. Teamwork provides the practical solution to th is basic paradox of man. We should as well need to rewind a bit and go back, back to the why and the what. Talking about humans and teams, reference should be made to the titan of all teams, that of family. A family has clear roles, purpose and beyond that, is the basic distinction of the human species. Some million years ago in Hominids, a strange thing occurred. The female lost its estrus, or at least the same estrus that was shared with the rest of the mammals. Thus dawned the era of romantic love, whence a female is able to select her partner based on her personal wants and not due to the predicate of nature. At the same time man is able to provide for this basic unit of existence, his family and both mom and dad can be there for their child, to nurture and educate it for its life to come; through teamwork. This fact that is true up to and including the present day is the basic comparative advantage of the human species. Without a doubt we can state that our existence and sur vival is owed to teamwork. So we can conclude that the thesis â€Å"teamwork is important† is an obvious understatement as it turns out, for teams are not only important in business; teams make up the reason for success in life. We may go so far as to state that teams are of such importance due to the fact that teamwork is a necessity clearly inscribed in our genome and materializes as one of our basic needs, equal to that of food and shelter. In a ship, we have an up to a fault (that is, for its totality lies isolated for a specific time frame) well-defined system. Within its hull there are individuals working and living towards a common purpose, that of the journey. Beyond its physical boundary, even in clear skies whence Aeolus and Poseidon are very merciful, lies the abyss. This within itself provides the manifestation of the distinction that governs the maritime industry (and is a fact that follows each maritime firm even within its brick and mortar installations a nd terrestrial activities); to return to our first point, if within these well-defined boundaries there not lies a family (with clear structure, size, roles and obligations but a family nonetheless), the journey and thus the mission will not proceed as streamlined. The intricacies of this dynamic synergy strike a sensitive chord within us as they border on the ideal. Science and technology are able to provide the medium to further our understanding and to optimize nearly all constituents of our industries, but without grasping that humans are core and that teamwork is all that makes us human, any application will be sterile. Effectiveness cannot surface without the aid of a team and collectiveness. This is true for all industries, but does not hold the same weight for each and every one, for there are some human activities that teamwork comprises an essential catalyst for success. The ancient quote that unity makes strength is of distinguished fortitude whence reflecting the mari time industry. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Why is Teamwork Important?" essay for you Create order