Monday, August 24, 2020

John Galliano for Dior Crisis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

John Galliano for Dior Crisis - Essay Example In ten years Maison Dior had gotten one of the most remarkable plan houses in the business with Seventh Ave relying upon Dior to lead them in a commonly advantageous relationship. In 1957 the organization was earning 17 Million dollars for each year, which expanded to 22 million by 1958. Yves Saint Laurant, Dior’s handpicked Head Assistant turned into the head of Dior, however before long left after just six assortments when he was called to join the French Army. He had taken up the rules of the Dior house when he was just twenty-one years of age (Blaszczyk 93). In spite of the fact that the plan vision of the organization has needed to change through the advances of planners throughout the years, the organization spearheaded an idea that made sure about its situation in the style business. As indicated by Blaszczyk â€Å"Maison Dior’s accomplishment throughout the entire existence of the design business lies in the making of an arrangement for creating benefits while proceeding to work the maison as a practical business for licensing† (105). What the House of Dior did was to make the main case of the intensity of marking and authorizing was the establishment of how the benefits for marking were set up. Thusly, one of the most significant parts of the idea of the business is in the discernments that the open holds for the name of Dior. This is the reason the emergency that happened with John Galliano must be maneuvered carefully and careful exactness. The House of Dior Christian Dior is as of now possessed by LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton, which is claimed by Bernard Arnaul. Sidney Toledano, Dior Couture’s CEO, and the governing body were answerable for the choice to fire Galliano during the emergency (Saltmarsh). The socioeconomics for Dior are wide and differed, contingent upon what part of the organization is being talked about. In any case, the center of the socioeconomics are rich with a privileged salary, changing from the i ndividuals who purchase from the runway and are spoken to by the tip top to those with upper working class livelihoods that can manage the cost of higher creator level costs. The House of Dior incorporates Miss Dior, which is outfitted towards the more youthful lady, J’dore, which is presently the fragrance that is spoken to by Charlize Theron, and Diorskin Forever, their skincare line spoke to by Natalie Portman. Dior lines incorporate adornments, gems, watches, child wear, men’s wear, and obviously, women’s wear (Dior). Dior speaks to allure, riches, and couture. The house has consistently strived to serve the first class of the world. Christian Dior, in resistance of a limitation on texture during World War II, made pieces in his assortment that utilizes as much as 20 yards of texture (Blaszczyk 93). While this proposes a feeling of social insubordination during when individuals were expected to rally, it likewise speaks to a confidence in the advantage of li fe and that to live in a confined structure is to constrain the conceivable outcomes. Dior’s first discharges additionally changed the appearance of lady. He grasped the enormous bosoms, little abdomen, and long outline with skirts that finished at mid-calf that currently still have power in women’s wear manifestations. His organization was run in view of keen business moves, permitting the items so as to make lines that could expand the brand. Dior is an organization to be respected for the items that they produce, the extravagant way of life that is the foundation

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The history of the number zero Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The historical backdrop of the number zero - Research Paper Example For example, the numbers 2011 and 211 speak to two unique numbers and have totally extraordinary sense. Besides, zero is utilized in its structure as a number itself for example 0. Both the previously mentioned employments of zero have been exceedingly significant. However, the two above portrayed employments of zero can't report recorded proof of making of zero. It would not have been so natural for the term and thought behind the creation of the number to be generally acknowledged and utilized. The number and term zero has not been immediately inferred idea. It took a gigantic period to build up the idea and utilization of zero as a name and an image (O'Connor and Robertson, 2000). Zero as a number, image and an idea has been in reality significant and is known potentially worldwide for its noteworthy utilization. The acknowledgment, dread and working of zero has been the crucial of the world since today, zero satisfies a key job in science as the genuine numbers, added substance p ersonality of the whole numbers, and a great deal of other mathematical structures. What's more, the idea of zero can be utilized in analytics, bookkeeping, account, measurements, PCs, and especially in the present associated world. The advancement of zero from being just a placeholder to the driver of analytics has crossed hundreds of years, and included assorted and broadly incredible intellectual intuition, both in degree and extension all around (Kaplan and Seife, 2002). As an idea, zero shows ‘nothing’ or ‘naught’. â€Å"How would nothing be able to be something?† is an inquiry that antiquated Greeks posed to themselves. Records have demonstrated that they were by all accounts dubious about the understanding of zero as a number. The creation and status of zero has prompted philosophical and strict contentions by Middle-ages (Bourbaki, 1998). Actually, today’s Arabic number framework has started in India, yet is relatively recently evolved . From the earliest starting point, individuals have been marking sums and measures with an assortment of figures and images all through hundreds of years, while confronting challenges in performing most basic number-crunching calculations with those number frameworks. An including framework had been first evolved by the Sumerians as they needed to stamp and keep the records of the amounts of their merchandise, for example, steers, ponies, and jackasses. The disadvantage with respect to the Sumerian framework was that the framework was positional which implies that the situating of a particular image when contrasted with others signified its worth. Around 2500 BC, Akkadians passed on The Sumerian framework and in 2000 BC, the equivalent was finished by the Babylonians. The development of zero appears to have started from the Babylonians which has crossed may hundreds of years and was altogether different from the image know to us today. Babylonians were the first to ideate an imprin t to make it understood that a number had been absent from a section. For example, 0 in the number 2011 communicates that there are no hundreds in that number. At that point zero didn't have any image to mean the space. Albeit Ancient Greeks have brought numerous well known mathematicians who took in the essential standards of their science from the Egyptians and they had a number framework, however that framework came up short on a placeholder like the one of Babylonians so they couldn't propose a name to show that vacant space. They may have mulled over the name to indicate that place between numbers, however there is no such proof to make inference that the image even

Saturday, July 25, 2020

I am, and ever will be, a white socks, pocket protector, nerdy engineer

“I am, and ever will be, a white socks, pocket protector, nerdy engineer…” The quote, in full: I am, and ever will be, a white socks, pocket protector, nerdy engineer born under the second law of thermodynamics, steeped in steam tables, in love with free-body diagrams, transformed by Laplace, and propelled by compressible flow. Neil Armstrong, February 2000 The place: Stata Center, 32-141. The time: a dusky 9:00 AM on the first day of class. Sixty-odd students fidget nervous-excitedly in a semicircular lecture hall as Professor David Darmofal, soon-to-be fluid/aerodynamics lecturer, welcomes us all to a year of Unified Engineering, a year-long, four-course series covering all the bases in thermodynamics, signals, control systems, structures, and everything else that makes an airplane fly or a rocket orbit. Maybe were not all white socks/pocket protector (about a third of us are female, incidentally, and through some quirk of the fashion industry have no pockets), but nerdy engineers is completely accurate. As we introduced ourselves, most everyone said they joined AeroAstro because they loved rockets or loved airplanes or loved furthering the fight against gravity. Many of my classmates said they dreamed of being astronauts, or of building the first rocket to take astronauts to Mars. Some of my classmates were pilots themselves. One of my classmates related anecdotally how he gets distracted by airplanes flying overhead, and gave Professor Darmofal an opening to introduce the Jim Mar Test. Used by Mar to evaluate potential AeroAstro faculty members during interviews, the test goes like this: 1. Take the candidate outside. 2. Wait for the familiar rumble of passing jet airliners to fill the air. 3. If the candidate automatically looks up at the airplane, the candidate passes and gets the job. Having spent my summer in Seattle watching jet planes take off from Boeing Field, I felt somewhat reassured once more that I was in the right department. My reasons for choosing aerospace engineering (Course 16), however, dont exactly fit the mold. Many students, as described by Professor Darmofal, knew soon after they were born that they wanted to be aerospace engineers. Whether this love was inspired by watching Cape Canaveral shuttle launches from backyards or by Carl Sagan reruns on PBS, these are people that have had a die-hard adoration for spaceflight or aircraft since before they could read. These are people that can identify airplanes on sight and have been able to rattle off a list of their five favorite airplanes or spacecraft for at least a decade. As Lulu L. 09 describes: You see, to be quite honest, Course 16 is not designed like many other majors necessarily with exploration in mind. As one of my hallmates wisely pointed out to me, while many students develop a tangible interest in math or chemistry through positive experiences with intro classes in high school or early college, far fewer students decide to take a shot at Aerospace because theyd done well in their 10th grade Jet Propulsion class and found the material interesting. Instead, course 16 students are propelled by a sort of fanaticism much in the way that marathon runners are motivated by the finish line. Its about making it through, and meanwhile having each other to lean on. And also: You cant take any other classes in the Aero/Astro department until youve completed both semesters of Unified Engineering- a series designed to encompass all the fundamentals of engineering while exploring questions such as Just how excited are you, really, about airplanes?? and Are you sure? That sort of fanaticism (for airplanes, or for anything else, really), was something I didnt have the privilege to grow up with. Theres a notion of passion thats widely perpetuated, particularly by science media and even college application essay prompts, that seems to imply that everyone grows up with something they care deeply about, and have cared deeply about for their entire lives. The romantic narrative of childhood inspiration culminating in success is familiar and widespread, used to describe teenage science fair winners and astronauts alike. As a child of immigrant parents raised in the Silicon Valley, I do need to admit that my educational trajectory to the MIT AeroAstro department was propelled less by a love for propellers and more by an inbred desire to succeed, in the vaguest possible sense of the word. By some standards, succeed I didI made good grades all through middle school and high school, explored extracurriculars, and now attend MIT. I have a hunch that the smattering of MIT students from my eighty-percent-Asian high school would express a similar sentiment. I know that I have close friends at other schools who are still searching for that passion. We dont know what to do with our lives is a common mantra among my high school class. Why, then, did I choose to become an aerospace engineer? Heres what I knew, graduating from high school: 1. I wanted to build things, and enjoyed building things. 2. I was not very good at building things (remember, this is a kid who didnt know what an Allen key was or how to solder exactly one year ago). 3. I had a budding four-year-old fascination with astrophysics, astronomy, and stargazing, starting from freshman year, because I was also a flourishing high-school poet (with all the associated stereotypes) who found space poetic and romantic. (Semirelated: those interested in theology might ask me about how astronomy influenced and affirmed my understanding of God.) 4. AP English Literature was my favorite class senior year. Journalism III was a very close second. 5. I was not an ambitious person. The only thing I ever really wanted from my life was a family, kids, and maybe a dog ironically named Kitty. 6. If I wanted to, I was in a good position to pursue pretty much any engineering career I wanted. 7. I liked challenges. So when my turn came to introduce myself and share my reasons for choosing Course 16, I gave everyone the short version: I thought I was going to be an astrophysicist until I realized I liked building things a lot more than I liked physics. (This post youre reading is the long version.) I entered freshman year with these seven givens in mind, and set out to fulfill what I could. I found a UROP in the Space Systems Lab and joined Design/Build/Fly, learning how to solder, fabricate airplanes, and read assembly code. I got better at building things. I learned how to work in teams, and what qualities to look for in good teammates. I started singing even more than before, joined the MIT/Wellesley Toons, and therein found a close circle of friends and a tightly-woven support system that kept me alive and sane again and again. And vowing to keep my interest in the humanities alive, I enrolled in humanities classes that seemed interesting to me: 21W.747 (Rhetoric), 21W.762 (Poetry Workshop), and CMS.100 (Introduction to Media Studies). I modified and retuned my understanding of the world. I prayed a lot. I learned that I have a fear of getting bored, and cant see myself working with one project (or even one company) for my entire life. I discovered a fear of getting boxed in, a fear of specializing to the extent that I would only be able to do one thing for the rest of my life. I discovered a similar fear of becoming average, of becoming one more Asian male coder/techie/software geek making absurd amounts of money in Silicon Valley or on Wall Street and perpetuating a new, sneaky inegalitarianism spreading slowly in this Millenial generation. I realized the very high value I place on personal, close friendships and relationships. I had a conception that I would only be able to work for major aerospace corporations or organizations like NASA, Boeing, or SpaceX, and that Id be left stranded if I ever wanted to leave the aerospace field. This conception was thoroughly dispelled when I (1) met an alum who now works for Google on Project Ara (a modular cell phone), (2) met our Design/Build/Fly pilot and ex-captain, who got hired by Google and moved to California, (3) met an ex-AeroAstro who had switched majors to Urban Planning, and (4) was offered an incredible and very fulfilling internship at a company I never expected to work for: Amazon, in Seattle. The alum from (1) expressed a view of MIT AeroAstro that has stuck with me for the past year: that is, that becoming an aerospace engineer at MIT doesnt just necessarily prepare you for becoming an aerospace engineerit teaches you how to understand, work with, develop, and synthesize incredibly complex systems with too many subsystems to count, it teaches you how to communicate excellently, and it teaches you how to work in large teams to make these systems reality. These are notions and skills that apply not just to rockets and airplanes but also to essentially everything else, whether thats authoring a book or human rights advocacy or modular cell phone development or city planning. I decided to stick with AeroAstro. I figured I was fascinated enough by planes and rockets to get through college, grad school, and a few years in industry without getting bored, and if I did get bored, Id have space and skills enough to find something else interesting to work on. And I figured I could continue taking creative writing and media studies classes concurrently with Unified Engineering. So here I am, learning about the Breguet Equation for aircraft range estimation and entering the second quarter of my time at MIT. Im grateful for the blessing of attending an engineering school whose humanities departments are as excellent as they are expansive, a school where its totally plausible to be a EECS/Theater double-major, and a school whose comparative media studies (CMS) department sits at the forefront of the field as one of the only applied humanities programs in the world. And to those of you who can relate to the kind of uncertainty, soul-searching, and desire for a passion that Ive shared: Id like to reassure you that the path of passion, so to speak, isnt necessarily accurate for everyone, and its okay if its not accurate for you. Some people are powered more by simple drive and far-reaching curiosity than they are by a deeply entrenched, childhood-born dedication. It doesnt mean youll end up less educated or less prepared for a career or less successful (whatever successful even means). It simply means youre still finding your way through a brave new worldand after all, who isnt?

Friday, May 22, 2020

The Two Self Defeating Lenses How Long Will They Keep...

The Two Self-defeating Lenses: How Long Will They Keep Preventing a Healthy Nepal-India Relationship? By Dr. Krishna Poudel These two groups of actors narrate Nepal-India relationship viewing it through a treacherous lens: the South Block and a particular genre of Indian politicians and the fanatic nationalists in Nepal. The lenses have been self-defeating in that they have prevented the two nations from building a healthy relationship. The Lenses and the narratives The lens of South Block and a particular genre of Indian politicians has four basic components: 1) Nepal falls under the â€Å"natural† geopolitical influence of India, under the so-called extended Indian security umbrella, and it should remain that way; 2) Delhi can twist Kathmandu’s arms whenever it wants because of the excessive economic dependence of Nepal on India and its landlocked-ness; 3) India is entitled to micro-manage affairs in Nepal precisely to maintain that umbrella; 4) and a little â€Å"controlled instability† will do the trick. The South Block and Indian strategists might be divided in the fourth component, but, most of the South Block and this particular genre of Indian politicians seem to agree in the rest of the three components. This group of actors, however, hide this outlook in a convenient and sugar-coated narrative, directed at its own people and to the world. The narrative is: Because of the people-to-people level connections between India and Nepal, we have a brotherly relationship. It isShow MoreRelatedDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pages0-13-612100-4 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-612100-8 B R I E F TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S Preface xvii Introduction 1 PART I 1 2 3 PERSONAL SKILLS 44 Developing Self-Awareness 45 Managing Personal Stress 105 Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively 167 PART II 4 5 6 7 INTERPERSONAL SKILLS 232 233 Building Relationships by Communicating Supportively Gaining Power and Influence 279 Motivating Others 323 Managing Conflict 373 PART III GROUP SKILLS 438 8 Empowering and Delegating

Friday, May 8, 2020

Why is Hubel and Wiesels Description of the Classical...

The ultimate goal for a system of visual perception is representing visual scenes. It is generally assumed that this requires an initial ‘break-down’ of complex visual stimuli into some kind of â€Å"discrete subunits† (De Valois De Valois, 1980, p.316) which can then be passed on and further processed by the brain. The task thus arises of identifying these subunits as well as the means by which the visual system interprets and processes sensory input. An approach to visual scene analysis that prevailed for many years was that of individual cortical cells being ‘feature detectors’ with particular response-criteria. Though not self-proclaimed, Hubel and Wiesel’s theory of a hierarchical visual system employs a form of such feature detectors. I†¦show more content†¦Applying this notion to mammalian vision is however problematic; humans for example, are capable of visually perceiving greater detail and variety than a frog and would thus require considerably more of these uniquely coded feature detectors. The notion of a ‘grandmother cell’ was thus introduced to highlight the entailment of such a theory; if every unique stimulus requires its own feature-detector cell, an absurdly high number of neurons would be required for humans to represent the vast variety of visual scenes encountered in a lifetime. Aware of this shortcoming, Hubel and Wiesel (1962,1965,1968) were cautious not refer to ‘feature detectors’ when examining the receptive fields of the mammalian visual cortex of live cats (Hubel Wiesel, 1962) and monkeys (Hubel Wiesel, 1968). Nonetheless, it is now widely accepted that Hubel and Wiesel’s theory of simple, complex and hyper-complex cells remains a form of the original feature-detector theory, albeit formulated into a more economical hierarchical structure. (Lennie, 2003; Martin, 1994) Hubel and Wiesel (962, 1965) concluded that vision involved a hierarchical process starting in the retina, continuing through the lateral geniculate body, the primary visual cortex and possibly even into areas V2 and V3. As sensory information travels further up the hierarchy, it passes through progressively higher-order cells that become increasingly

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Monitoring Offenders Free Essays

Electronic Monitoring1 Electronic Monitoring of Offenders Electronic Monitoring 2 Abstract The project discusses different data and sources about electronic monitoring of offenders. The project includes a brief history of how it came about, different literature reviews about the topic, images of devices used to give the audience an idea of how monitoring offenders work, useful websites to look up further information about electronic monitoring of offenders, and some graphs and data of different offenders placed under house arrest and electronically monitored in the community. The main focus of the project is to provide an understanding of how electronic monitoring is used throughout the United States and some other parts of the world. We will write a custom essay sample on Monitoring Offenders or any similar topic only for you Order Now Electronic monitoring is a way of tracking every offenders move and location through a computer via satellite or GPS (Global Positioning System). Electronic Monitoring3 Table of Contents Topic â€Å"Basics† Section†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Pp. 4-7 Literature Review†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Pp. 8-13 Website References Section†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Pp. 14-18 Data Files†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Pp. 19-21 Topic â€Å"Explanation† Section†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Pp. 22-25 Appendices†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Pp. 26-27 Electronic Monitoring4 Topic Basics Electronic monitoring became a very useful way of serving a sentence for criminals. It can be used in many ways: track down the prisoner’s every move, sense to see if the person is drinking alcohol or taking narcotics. The device that is used can be traced back to the agency through via satellite or Global Positioning System (GPS). Electronic monitoring is important in the criminal justice system because it’s useful technology in monitoring sex offenders and those on probation or parole. I also think it is important that it decreases prison population and less expensive. It costs a lot more money to sentence someone to prison than to sentence someone to house arrest under electronic monitoring. According to Burrell, it costs about ten dollars a day to monitor an offender who is placed under house arrest. When it comes to sex offenders, I think electronic monitoring is important. For example, a sex offender cannot be within a 100 feet of a school and the electronic monitoring can tell the agency if he/she has passed by a school while going to work. House arrest is when the judge places you on home confinement or detention, he/she orders you to abide by specific terms and conditions that restrict your freedom and mobility. After all, home confinement is still punishment. It’s simply more desirable than traditional incarceration. These terms include curfew restrictions, random drug testing, and home visits by a probation or parole officer. Depending on how severe the crime that was committed, the judge may not even allow the offender to attend work or school, travel to medical appointments, or tend to family obligations. Electronic Monitoring5 Electronic monitoring was developed back in the mid-1960s by a psychologist named Robert Schwitzgebel. It was inspired by the comic book of â€Å"Spiderman† (Burrell 2008) when the villain would track down the hero’s every move through a device. It led to the idea that instead of sending misdemeanor offenders to prison but rather incarcerate them in their home. In 1983, the first house arrest with electronic monitoring was sentenced by Judge Jack Love of Albuquerque, New Mexico (Howard 2001). Electronic monitoring became much popularized in the 1980s and was extensively used as an alternative to incarceration in jail or prison. Electronic monitoring is also an adjunct to traditional probation or parole supervision. Today, a couple of decades later, electronic monitoring shows renewed popularity with the interests of legislators (Burrell 2008). According to Howell (2010), there are two main types of electronic monitoring. One type is continuously signaling, which means that a transmitter is strapped to the subject and it broadcasts a coded signal over a telephone line at regular intervals. For example, this type can see if the offender is entering or exiting the range of unit (U. S. Department of Justice 1988). Another type of electronic monitoring is called programmed contact. This means that a computer will contact the offender to see if he/she is home or if they are violating their curfew. The computer will then verify if he/she has verified their location and if it’s the offender as well. Basic equipment that is used in this process is a simple ankle bracelet that looks similar to a beeper strapped around the offender’s ankle. The device then sends out a 24-hour signal to the monitoring agency, and the agency will be notified if the offender tampers with the device. The device is linked to the agency via Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS is the most advanced of the home detention devices. It uses commercial cellular networks to transmit data 24-hours a Electronic Monitoring6 day to the monitoring agency. GPS tracking allows the supervising agency to create specific inclusion and exclusion zones, mapping, and tracking. The agency knows your exact whereabouts at all times (Shouse Law). â€Å"Nationwide, EMD programs are currently at an exploratory stage. In February 1987, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) conducted a survey of 53 electronic monitoring programs in 21 States, indicating that 800 offenders were being monitored. The typical offender was a sentenced male under the age of 30; in fact. Nearly 90 percent of the offenders were male, between age 14 and 78. About one-third were convicted for major traffic law violations – particularly drunk driving. In February 1988, NIJ’s â€Å"1 – day count† found that monitors were being used in 32 States on approximately 2,500 offenders† (NIJ 1988). These are some major issues some legislators have to debate about with electronic monitoring. According to the NIJ, electronic monitoring in the beginning was only used for monitoring and verifying the offenders’ every move. As time passed, the technology of electronic monitoring became more advanced. The Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitor (SCRAM) device is only ordered for the defendant, by the judge, who has been convicted of alcohol-related offenses (or who the judge believes may have an issue with alcohol). This alcohol bracelet continuously monitors alcohol concentration, not your whereabouts (Shouse Law). While blood and breath tests only measure sobriety at a specific point in time, SCRAM samples the offender’s sweat every half hour. This gives you complete 24/7 coverage, rather than just a snapshot look at when your offenders are on their best behavior. SCRAM’s flexible reporting functionality lets you specify how you want to receive information on each monitored offender – from full historical data to exception-based reporting. Either way, you receive the data you need on who offended, when Electronic Monitoring7 they offended, and the level of alcohol they consumed. Another advanced device of electronic monitoring that has been made in the 21st Century is the â€Å"drug patch. Drug patches are sometimes used to monitor those convicted of drug offenses. These patches are removed and replaced weekly. Once removed, they are tested for traces of marijuana, heroin, PCP, cocaine, and methamphetamines (SHouseLaw). According to California law, when the monitoring agency receives an alert that you have violated the exact terms and conditions that were imposed in connection with your house arrest, it noti fies your probation or parole officer. California probation laws allow the probation or parole officer to arrest the offender without relying on a California arrest warrant. If the offender is following a probation or parole violation hearing, the judge must believe that the offender have violated the terms of his/her home detention. The judge may revoke the offender’s house arrest and order that person to serve the remainder of their sentence in jail or prison. This may lead to an economic problem in that state. Sentencing someone to prison cost over millions of dollars while electronic monitoring is only ten dollars a day (Burrell 2008). Electronic monitoring is important for the low cost it provides for the economy and justice can be served with community supervision. After learning a few basics on electronic monitoring, I have a bit of knowledge about how it is used and works technically. The basic instruments used for house arrest are things I already knew about before starting this project. However, I did not know about electronic monitoring devices that dealt with alcohol use and drug use. I would hope to become a probation officer after graduating college. The information provided for me was very useful in completing the project. Electronic Monitoring8 Literature Review 1) Bales, W. , Mann, K. , Blomberg, T. , McManus, B. , Dhungana, K. (2010). Electronic Monitoring in Florida. Journal of Offender Monitoring, 22(2), 5-12. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. The article provides an overview of the electronic monitoring program (EM) employed in Florida. A variety of supervision modalities in supervising felony offenders is depicted. It looks at the history and existence of the EM program stressing the changes in technology. The law and policies related to the operation are discussed and the current cost of EM to the state and the offenders is examined. Moreover, the residency restrictions placed on specified types of sex offenders is expounded. ) DeMichele, M. , Payne, B. K. , Button, D. M. (2008). Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders: Identifying Unanticipated Consequences and Implications. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 46(3/4), 119-135. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. In recent years, increased legislative attention has been given to strategies to supervise sex offenders in the community. Among other policies, several states have passed laws calling for the use of electronic monitoring technologies to supervise sex offenders in the community. When initially developed, this community-based sanction was designed for less serious offenders. As a result, probation and parole officers who have been using electronic monitoring technologies have likely had little exposure to the sex offender population. Alternatively, those who have historically worked with sex offenders have had little exposure to electronic monitoring strategies. In the end, those supervising sex offenders in the community will need to be familiar with two divergent areas. 3) Cotter, R. , Lint, W. (2009). GPS-Electronic Monitoring and Contemporary Penology: A Case Study of US GPS-Electronic Monitoring Programmes. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 48(1), 76-87. doi:10. 1111/j. 1468-2311. 2008. 00545. x Criminologists have noted a significant reorientation of criminal justice policy. Initially this reorientation was most dramatically articulated by Feeley and Simon (1992) , who suggested that penalty has shifted from the ‘modern’ to ‘new’ penology. Criticisms of the binary ‘modern’ and ‘new’ penology model has led to the contemporary understanding of penalty through a threefold model of: ‘punishment-punitive’, ‘rehabilitative-humanistic’ and ‘managerial-surveillant’ discourses. This research represents an empirically-based attempt to locate GPS-electronic monitoring within this threefold model. 4) Martin, J. S. , Hanrahan, K. , Bowers, J. H. (2009). Offenders’ Perceptions of House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 48(6), 547-570. doi:10. 1080/10509670903081359 This article reports on a study designed to examine the perceptions of house arrest (HA) and electronic monitoring (EM) among offenders who have recently experienced this criminal sentence. Data were gathered via a self-administered questionnaire and follow-up interviews with a sample of offenders. Our primary areas of interest were to assess (a) the extent to which HA and EM are perceived as punitive, (b) the extent to which this sanction impacts the offenders at home and at work, and (c) to explore the ways in which this criminal sanction impacts family members. While HA with EM was perceived as being less severe than incarceration, it is clear that HA with EM is experienced as a punitive criminal sanction. Electronic Monitoring 9 5) Pattavina, A. (2009). The Use of Electronic Monitoring as Persuasive Technology: Reconsidering the Empirical Evidence on the Effectiveness of Electronic Monitoring. Victims ; Offenders, 4(4), 385-390. doi:10. 1080/15564880903260611 The growing collection of evidence-based research reviews regarding criminal justice practices and programs is making an important contribution to the field in terms of identifying what works, what doesn’t and what’s promising. The purpose of this article will be to present the challenges and prospects associated with using evidence-based research reviews as a basis for promoting change in the application of electronic monitoring to individuals. In particular, the discussion will focus on how what we have learned about electronic monitoring from past reviews can inform the next generation of monitoring technologies for promoting offender change. 6) Hucklesby, A. (2011). The working life of electronic monitoring officers. Criminology ; Criminal Justice: An International Journal, 11(1), 59-76. doi:10. 177/1748895810392185 Monitoring officers are responsible for putting electronic monitoring (EM) policy into practice and ensuring that offenders are monitored and that alleged non-compliance is investigated. Arguably, they are a new criminal justice profession and exploring their working values and practices is important if we are to understand how EM operates and to address questions about its effectiveness. Th is article explores monitoring officers’ attitudes to their work and their working practices. It highlights how safety concerns impact upon their work and identifies a range of strategies which are used to deal with their anxieties. It also examines whether monitoring officers have an identifiable occupational culture concluding that while they share a working orientation, a strong cohesive occupational culture is absent. However, differences in working values were identified among monitoring officers, which mirror the range of working credos identified in other criminal justice professionals. The extent to which the work of monitoring officers is affected by EM being operated by the private sector is also explored as well as the policy implications of the findings. ) Blackwell, B. , Payne, B. , ; Prevost, J. (2011). Measuring Electronic Monitoring Tools: The Influence of Vendor Type and Vendor Data. American Journal Of Criminal Justice, 36(1), 17-28. doi:10. 1007/s12103-010-9100-4 The rise in the use of electronic monitoring tools for management of individuals in both pretrial and post-release correctional stages of the criminal justice system necessitates increased collaboration of criminal justice personnel w ith private sector companies that provide monitoring services. Given this shift, it is necessary to explore whether agency employees perceive that different vendors are providing levels or quality of services. This study indicates that parole officers perceive very few real differences in the monitoring services, equipment used, and ease of installation and deactivation of such equipment across two different vendors. The primary difference identified was in the costs of such services. 8) Electronic Monitoring. (2011). Probation ; Parole Law Reports, 32(5), 84-86. The article discusses the findings of various cases about electronic monitoring of probationers in the U. S. The â€Å"State v. Franklin† case is highlighted which involves Thomas Franklin who remained on intensive supervision after being released from the residential program at Stark Regional Community Correctional Center (SRCCC). The â€Å"State v. Kandutsch† case which addresses issues concerning the use of a computer report generated by an electronic monitoring device is also emphasized. Electronic Monitoring10 9) KILLIAS, M. , GILLIERON, G. KISSLING, I. , ; VILLETTAZ, P. (2010). Community Service Versus Electronic Monitoring—What Works Better? : Results of a Randomized Trial. British Journal Of Criminology, 50(6), 1155-1170. doi:10. 1093/bjc/azq050 The present study is based on a controlled experiment in Switzerland with 240 subjects randomly assigned either to community service or to electronic monitoring. Measures of outcome include reconvictions, self-rep orted delinquency and several measures of social integration such as marriage, income and debts. The findings, based on subjects who successfully completed their sanction, suggest, with marginal significance, that those assigned to electronic monitoring reoffended less than those assigned to community service, that they were more often married and lived under more favorable financial circumstances. Electronic monitoring may be an alternative to non-custodial sanctions. With increasing demands for non-custodial sanctions, it is crucial having more alternatives available. 10) Marklund, F. , ; Holmberg, S. (2009). Effects of early release from prison using electronic tagging in Sweden. Journal Of Experimental Criminology, 5(1), 41-61. doi:10. 1007/s11292-008-9064-2 The meta-analyses that have to date been published provide no support for the contention that the use of electronic monitoring (EM) in the home as a substitute for the whole or part of a prison sentence might produce any positive effect in relation to reoffending. The few studies that these analyses are based on have a number of shortcomings, however; several of them are very small, and they often fail to provide a complete description of the elements that electronic monitoring programs include in addition to the monitoring itself. The study presented in this article has produced more positive results however. It focuses on the first 260 individuals to participate in an early release program that included electronic monitoring in the home. This group was compared with a register-based control group. In addition to electronic monitoring by means of an ankle bracelet, it was obligatory for program participants to have a daily occupation, which could be arranged by the prison and probation service if necessary, and they were subject to regular sobriety controls. The early release group reoffended to a significantly lesser extent than the control group did. It is not possible, however, to state to what extent this was a result of the electronic monitoring in the home or of the other elements included in the program. When the group was trichotomised on the basis of levels of prior involvement in crime, it was found that the difference between the early release group and the control group was particularly large among those with intermediate levels of previous criminality. 11) Button, D. M. , DeMichele, M. , ; Payne, B. K. (2009). Using Electronic Monitoring to Supervise Sex Offenders: Legislative Patterns and Implications for Community Corrections Officers. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 20(4), 414-436. The contemporary crime control policy arena is one in which many states and the federal government are passing increasingly punitive legislation authorizing, and often, requiring electronic monitoring of sex offenders. This article reviews exploratory legal data on relevant state codes of all 50 states in the United States. The authors review state statutes regulating he electronic monitoring of sex offenders to identify the characteristics of the legislation, the necessity of the laws, and the implications for probation and parole agencies and officers. Eight patterns are identified through the content analysis of recent legislation regarding electronic monitoring of sex offenders. Policy implications are identified. Electronic Monitoring11 12) Barton, S. M. , ; Roy, S. (2008). Convicted Drunk Dri vers in an Electronic Monitoring Program: A Preliminary Study. International Journal Of Criminal Justice Sciences, 3(1), 28-43. In the United States, electronic monitoring home detention programs were officially started in Palm Beach County, Florida, in 1984. Researchers have been assessing these programs since late 1980s. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of these programs on convicted drunk drivers. This study focuses on drunk drivers sentenced to electronic monitoring home detention program in a southwestern Indiana county from January 2002 to December 2003. Specifically, the objective of this study is to examine the characteristics of program participants and their exit status. 13) Padgett, K. G. , Bales, W. D. ;Bloomberg, T. G. (2006). Under surveillance: An empirical test of the effectiveness and consequences of electronic monitoring. Criminology ; Public Policy, 5(1), 61-91. doi:10. 1111/j. 1745-9133. 2006. 00102. x This study addresses the effectiveness of electronic monitoring (EM) for serious offenders supervised in the community. Using data on 75,661 offenders placed on home con finement in Florida from 1998 to 2002, we find that both radio-frequency and global positioning system monitoring significantly reduce the likelihood of technical violations, reoffending, and absconding for this population of offenders. Additionally, we find that offenders placed on home confinement with EM are significantly more serious than those placed on home confinement without EM, which casts doubt on the anticipated net-widening effect of this particular intermediate sanction. Policy Implications: Given the anticipated increase in the use of EM in the immediate future, policy makers will surely be faced with questions about its effectiveness in preventing or deterring further criminal activity among offenders in the community, as well as concerns about the intensity of urveillance it affords and a subsequent increase in the likelihood of a prison sentence or return to prison for technical violations. 14) Yeh, S. S. (2010). Cost-benefit analysis of reducing crime through electronic monitoring of parolees and probationers. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 38(5), 1090-1096. doi:10. 1016/j. jcrimjus. 2010. 08. 001 The objective of this study was to estimate the benefits and costs of using electronic monitoring (EM) a nd home detention to reduce crime committed by parolees and probationers. Data from a national survey of state prison inmates was adjusted and used to estimate the number of crimes that would have been committed by all parolees and probationers over the course of one year in the absence of EM and home detention. The data were analyzed in combination with existing analyses of the effectiveness and costs of EM and home detention and the economic costs of crime to estimate the benefit-cost ratio of nationwide implementation of EM and home detention with all parolees and probationers. EM plus home detention could avert an estimated 781,383 crimes every year. The social value of the annual reduction in crime is $481. 1billion. Society would gain $12. 70 for every dollar expended on the proposed intervention. EM plus home detention could be an effective deterrent to crime and could have enormous social benefits, especially if it is applied early and saves what would otherwise be habitual offenders from a life of crime. 15) Nellis, M. (2006). Surveillance, rehabilitation, and electronic monitoring: Getting issues clear. Criminology ; Public Policy, 5(1), 103-108. doi:10. 1111/j. 1745-9133. 2006. 00104. The author states that while there are reasons to believe that both radio-frequency and global positioning forms of electronic monitoring add some control over an offender that conventional Electronic Monitoring12 probation supervision cannot provide, there are no good reasons to believe that they have a rehabilitative effect by themselves. Restricting offenders to their homes or tracking their movements cannot accomplish the real goal of cha nging offenders’ attitudes and cannot equip them with skills that enable them to desist from crime. 6) Is Electronic Monitoring Equivalent to Imprisonment?. (2011). Journal of Offender Monitoring, 23(2), 5-6. The article discusses a court case wherein Brian Horsman who was charged by the State of Illinois with felony driving with revoked license has requested the court that he be placed on electronic home monitoring as a means of fulfilling the statutory requirement that he be sentenced to imprisonment. 17) Haverkamp, R. , Mayer, M. , Levy, R. (2004). Electronic Monitoring in Europe. European Journal Of Crime, Criminal Law Criminal Justice, 12(1), 36-45. oi:10. 1163/1571817041268847 This article deals with the practice of electronic monitoring in European prisons. As of 2004, most industrial societies in Western Europe have found themselves burdened with overcrowded prisons and limited financial resources. Allegedly, more repressive crime policies led to the sentencing of l onger prison sentences for violent, drug and sexual offenders. Restrictive reforms concerning parole, aggravations in sentencing and categorization caused increases in the time actually spent in prison for many inmates. In addition, nearly all countries opting to use electronic monitoring have such conditions in common. Within such a context, electronic monitoring can be seen as one of the most promising alternatives to incarceration specifically adopted for the relief of the problem of overcrowding. Apparently, electronic monitoring was already in use in many Western European countries. Projects using electronic monitoring are well-established in the penal and correctional systems in England, Sweden and the Netherlands. Pilot projects can be observed in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Switzerland and Spain. One objective was to analyze the normative frameworks of electronic monitoring in the Western European countries which ran a trial or implemented a program on the option. 18) Electronic Monitoring Is Not Detention. (2011). Journal of Offender Monitoring, 23(2), 18. The article discusses a court case wherein minor Lorenzo L. was confined to the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation after he admitted that he committed kidnapping, street terrorism, and assault with a deadly weapon. The defendant appealed arguing that the juvenile court failed to award him predispositional credit for 28 days he spent in an electronic monitoring program. The court rejected Lorenzo’s contention since his electronic monitoring was not physical confinement. 19) Armstrong, G. S. , ; Freeman, B. C. (2011). Examining GPS monitoring alerts triggered by sex offenders: The divergence of legislative goals and practical application in community corrections. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 39(2), 175-182. doi:10. 1016/j. jcrimjus. 2011. 01. 006 The purpose of this article is bout legislative mandates that require GPS monitoring of offenders add to the existing logistical complexities of community supervision. Challenges in implementing GPS policies and practices are heightened by the lack of sound empirical research. Studies examining the relationships between GPS monitoring of sex offenders in the community and the legislative goals of public safety, deterrence, and cost effectiveness a re virtually nonexistent. To begin to address this gap in the literature, this study examines the impact of a Electronic Monitoring13 tatutorily-based GPS monitoring program for adult sex offenders convicted of dangerous crimes against children and placed under community supervision. 20) Renzema, M. , ; Mayo-Wilson, E. (2005). Can electronic monitoring reduce crime for moderate to high-risk offenders?. Journal Of Experimental Criminology, 1(2), 215-237. doi:10. 1007/s11292-005-1615-1 All electronic monitoring(EM) programs aim to suppress the criminal behavior of offenders being monitored and its advocates have always hoped EM could be instrumental in reducing long-term recidivism. This review investigates the history of EM and the extent to which EM empirically affects criminal behavior in moderate to high-risk populations. All available recidivism studies that included at least one comparison group between the first impact study in 1986 and 2002 were considered for the review. Although variants such as GPS tracking and continuous testing for alcohol in perspiration have recently emerged, no studies of these technologies were found that met the review’s inclusion criteria. Studies are examined and combined for meta-analysis where appropriate. Given its continued and widespread use and the dearth of reliable information about its effects, the authors conclude that applications of EM as a tool for reducing crime are not supported by existing data. Properly controlled experiments would be required to draw stronger conclusions about the effects of EM. Electronic Monitoring14 Website Reference Section This section will be based on different websites from the World Wide Web where you will be able to look up information about electronic monitoring. The websites provide useful information on different types of electronic monitoring and different methods that are used around the United States and other countries around the world. The websites may also provide some statistics about those under monitored surveillance. Name of Site: Center for Criminology and Public Policy Research URL of Site: www. criminologycenter. fsu. edu URL of Page: http://www. criminologycenter. fsu. edu/p/electronic-monitoring. php Date of Access: December 16, 2011 This site discusses different research done on electronic monitoring. It begins to talk about different statistics about offenders monitored under electronic monitoring. For example, it says â€Å"As early as 2000, more than 30,000 criminal offenders living in the community in the U. S. were monitored by electronic surveillance equipment for at least one day. † The site is maintained by the Florida State University’s Criminology Center and its most recent update was on May 18th, 2009. Name of Site: State of Michigan Department of Corrections URL of Site: www. michigan. gov URL of Page: http://www. michigan. gov/corrections/0,4551,7-119-1435_1498-5032–,00. tml Date of Access: December 16, 2011 This page talks about the different programs the state of Michigan has about electronic monitoring system. It also discusses a brief history of how the system became more used throughout the state during the 1980s. It then gives information on different devices the Corrections use to track offenders. The site is maintained by the State of Mich igan. Name of Site: Free Advice URL of Site: www. freeadvice. com URL of Pagehttp://criminal-law. freeadvice. com/criminal-law/parole_probation/house_ar rest. htm Date of Access: December 16, 2011 The site is search engine website for law advice and other criminal law topics. The page discusses different key terms about the topic of electronic monitoring. For example, it tells us what house arrest is and how it is monitored. The site is maintained by Gerry Goldsholle and was last updated on June 02, 2009. Name of Site: Oakland County Michigan Community Corrections Division URL of Site: www. oakgov. com URL of Page: http://www. oakgov. com/commcorr/program_service/electronic_monitor. html Date of Access: December 16, 2011 Electronic Monitoring15 This site provides different technology used in the county’s corrections unit. It talks about how it is used throughout the entire county and the programs they provide for different offenders. The last update was on October 12, 2006 and is maintained by the State of Michigan. Name of Site: Electronic Monitoring Resource Center URL of Site: www. du. edu URL of Page: https://emresourcecenter. nlectc. du. edu/ Date of Access: December 16, 2011 The page discusses on data of electronic monitoring use in the Denver area of Colorado. The features are outlined in different categories from types and different genders of offenders. The page is maintained by the University of Denver and was last updated May 20, 2010. Name of Site: DUI Foundation URL of Site: www. duifoundation. com URL of Page: www. duifoundation. org/legalguide/sentencingalternatives/electronicmonitoring/ Date of Access: December 16, 2011 The page discusses on how electronic monitoring works on an alcoholic who is under house arrest due to a DUI incident they committed. It talks about the device used on alcoholics to track down if they are consuming alcoholic beverages throughout the day 24/7. The owner’s of the website information was withheld and the site was last update on June 10, 2011. Name of Site: Leaders in Community Alternatives, Inc. URL of Site: www. lcaservices. com URL of Page: http://www. lcaservices. com/pages/equipment. html#gps Date of Access: December 16, 2011 The LCA, Inc. website discusses on the different equipment used to monitor offenders electronically. It’s basically like an advertisement for law enforcers so that they may use their technology to track down offenders; however, it provides useful information on the different devices. The website is maintained by Jesse Dudan and was last updated on May 16, 2011. Name of Site: Electronic Monitoring Services. LLC URL of Site: www. indyems. org URL of Page: http://indyems. org/monitoring. aspx Date of Access: December 17, 2011 The website talks about different data and devices used on an offender while under house arrest. The site is maintained by Marvin Royston Jr. and was last updated on February 28, 2011. Name of Site: Office of Justice Program URL of Site: http://www. ojp. usdoj. gov/ URL of Page: http://www. ojp. usdoj. gov/BJA/pdf/IACPSexOffenderElecMonitoring. pdf Date of Access: December 17, 2011 This site is a PDF file and provides information of keeping track of sex offenders in the community through GPS surveillance. The website is maintained by the Office of Justice in Washington D. C. and has no recent update. Electronic Monitoring16 Name of Site: National Audit Office URL of Site: www. nao. org. uk URL of Page: http://www. nao. org. uk/publications/0506/the_electronic_monitoring_of_a. aspx Date of Access: December 17, 2011 The website provides information about the programs used in the United Kingdom for electronic monitoring. It provides a full report of offenders under surveillance of electronic monitoring. The site is maintained by the National Audit Office and was last updated on November 1, 2011. Name of Site: The British Journal of Criminology URL of Site: www. oxfordjournals. org URL of Page: http://bjc. oxfordjournals. org/content/31/2/165. short Date of Access: December 17, 2011 This website provides information about how the British go about electronic monitoring around the country. This website is maintained by the Oxford University Press and was last updated on October 5, 2009. Name of Site: National Criminal Justice Reference Service URL of Site: www. ncjrs. gov URL of Page: https://www. ncjrs. gov/app/abstractdb/AbstractDBDetails. aspx? d=176698 Date of Access: December 17, 2011 This site provides information and data about the costs of electronic monitoring throughout the United States of America. It gives some background information of electronic monitoring of offenders and how it costs a little less than sending someone to prison. Name of Site: National Criminal Justice Reference Service URL of Site: www. ncjrs. gov URL of Page: https://www. ncjrs. gov/App/abstrac tdb/AbstractDBDetails. aspx? id=116750 Date of Access: December 17, 2011 The website is a government website by the Department of Justice. The information provided gives an article about the effectiveness of electronic monitoring of offenders throughout the United States. It shows points of views by offenders and also correction officers. Name of Site: Springer Link URL of Site: www. springerlink. com URL of Page: http://www. springerlink. com/content/w6x762q2242n8l44/ Date of Access: December 17, 2011 This site discusses the traits offenders do while they are incarcerated under house arrest. This shows the different opinions of offenders. Some believe it’s better than prison while others think that it’s torture. The site is maintained by Springer Science ; Business Media B. V. and was last updated on January 30, 2011. Name of Site: National Criminal Justice Reference Service URL of Site: www. ncjrs. gov URL of Page: https://www. ncjrs. gov/App/abstractdb/AbstractDBDetails. aspx? id=139140 Date of Access: December 17, 2011 Electronic Monitoring 17 This website provides more information about the effectiveness and technology that has been used to track down different offenders. This article focuses mainly on the sex offenders and how they can be a danger in society even if they’re under electronic monitoring and following up with their parole officer. Name of Site: National Criminal Justice Reference Service URL of Site: www. ncjrs. gov URL of Page: https://www. ncjrs. gov/App/abstractdb/AbstractDBDetails. aspx? id=108602 Date of Access: December 17, 2011 The site is provided by the US Department of Justice. This page provides an article based on how different methods are used to make sure the offender is properly placed within their boundaries if you may say and that they’re not going elsewhere. Name of Site: National Criminal Justice Reference Service URL of Site: www. ncjrs. gov URL of Page: https://www. ncjrs. gov/App/abstractdb/AbstractDBDetails. aspx? d=176261 Date of Access: December 17, 2011 The website provided can give useful resources and information about tracking down drug addicts with the Drug Patch. It detects whether or not an offender who had a drug problem and was incarcerated in the past if they are taking illegal narcotics in their system. Name of Site: Google URL of Site: www. google. com URL of Page: h ttp://www. google. com/patents? hl=en;lr=;vid=USPAT4736196;id=XW46AAAAEBAJ;oi=fnd;dq=electronic+monitoring+offenders;printsec=abstract#v=onepage;q=electronic%20monitoring%20offenders;f=false Date of Access: December 17, 2011 The source was found via Google Patents. This site provides a diagram and blueprint of a home detention monitoring device. It shows what parts of the device gives off the alarm to alert officials that the offender has left the premises and how it carries out via satellite. This website is maintained by Google, Inc and was last updated on July 20, 2011. Name of Site: National Criminal Justice Reference Service URL of Site: www. ncjrs. gov URL of Page: https://www. ncjrs. gov/App/abstractdb/AbstractDBDetails. aspx? id=190283 Date of Access: December 17, 2011 The website of the page above provides information about juveniles under electronic monitoring. The article suggested that electronic monitoring is not a harsh punishment and juveniles may most likely be placed under house arrest or probation. Electronic Monitoring18 Name of Site: Google URL of Site: www. google. com URL of Page: http://books. google. com/books? hl=en;lr=;id=mCOfWKwfpQYC;oi=fnd;pg=PA224;dq=electronic+monitoring+offenders;ots=H6cgo3OoGd;sig=sKrBNiIgGjT_kxe0gcoehWJrT7Q#v=onepage;q=electronic%20monitoring%20offenders;f=false Date of Access: December 17, 2011 The article was found via Google Books. The article is a chapter from a book and talks about the average crimes committed in order to be placed under house arrest. Usually those crimes are less serious but you can be on parole and be under electronic monitoring. This site is maintained by Google, Inc. and was last updated on August 23, 2011. Electronic Monitoring19 Data Files Source: U. S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (2004) | Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, NCJ 213476 | Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Justice p. 95. | Electronic Monitoring20 Source: U. S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prison and Jail Inmates at Mid| year 2000, Bulletin NCJ 185989, p. 6; 2003, Bulletin NCJ 203947, p. 7; 2005, Bulletin NCJ 213133, | p. 7; 2006, Bulletin NCJ 217675, p. 21; Jail Inmates at Midyear 2010-Statistical Tables, NCJ | 233431, p. 12 (Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Justice). Table adapted by SOURCEBOOK | Electronic Monitoring21 Number of Offenders Under Home Detention 1995-2010 Source: U. S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prison and Jail Inmates at Mid| year 2000, Bulletin NCJ 185989, p. ; 2003, Bulletin NCJ 203947, p. 7; 2005, Bulletin NCJ 213133, | p. 7; 2006, Bulletin NCJ 217675, p. 21; Jail Inmates at Midyear 2010-Statistical Tables, NCJ | 233431, p. 12 (Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Justice). Table adapted by SOURCEBOOK | staff. | | | | | | | | | Electronic Monitoring22 Topic Explanation Electronic monitoring of offenders has been around since the early 1980s. Since then, the technolo gy used has enhanced in many different ways. The technology started from a simple ankle bracelet to technology letting authorities know if you have been taking drugs or drinking alcoholic beverages. The legal definition of electronic monitoring means that it allows the release of a person into the community, during what could have been jail time, and obliging the individual to record his or her whereabouts at all times or on regular intervals using electronic or telecommunication devices (Duhaime. org 2009). Electronic monitoring is a frequent feature of a probation or bail order. Electronic monitoring was inspired by a Spiderman comic book that was read by Judge Jack Love of New Mexico (Howard 2001). Judge Love thought to create a real device from the comic book with the help of an electronics technician in 1983. On that same year, Love sentenced his first offender to house arrest with electronic monitoring (Howard 2001). Most electronic monitoring devices do not simply track the offender’s movement, but they simply confirm whether the subject is at an approved place approved times (Howard 2001). A Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology is the most common device used in electronic monitoring. This type of technology allows a correctional client to be precisely located around the world for 24 hours and 7 days a week. However, as technology develops, there are three really important pieces of technology in electronic monitoring. They are, regular house arrest ankle bracelets, SCRAMx, and drug patches. All these technologies are the most common use of detecting not only an offender’s location, but also his or her alcohol in-take. The SCRAMx System began over the past six years. This device became popular in the courts by issuing them to those who are dangerous to the public due to their excessive drinking. Electronic Monitoring23 The SCRAMx combines with the continuous alcohol monitoring (CAM) which detects the alcohol in-take of an offender. What makes SCRAMx different is that it is alcohol monitoring combined with house arrest technology (Alcohol Monitoring 2011). After the court has sentenced someone to be under house arrest due to excessive alcohol or drunk driving, they must wear the SCRAMx bracelet. The SCRAMx bracelet tests for alcohol every 30 minutes throughout the day, 24/7. It also monitors curfews and schedules of when an offender can be home or go to work/school. The SCRAMx bracelet also incorporates multiple sensors to detect attempted tampers, obstructions, or removal attempts (Alcohol Monitoring Systems 2011). All of this information is sent from the bracelet to the SCRAMx Base Station. The Base Station is plugged into an analog telephone line at the offender’s home or work place and uploads all available data from the SCRAMx bracelet. After it stores the information, it sends alcohol readings, tamper alerts, and diagnostic data to what is called SCRAMnet for further readings. SCRAMnet analyzes the data it receives from the base station and identifies any alerts such as, alcohol consumption, environmental interference, tampers/removals, and missed communications. The SCRAMnet will alert the agency or appropriate contact person if the offender has violated any of his/her sentence. This technology will take all the recorded data will send it to the official via LCD screen with graphs and charts of every test or tamper report. These reports can be accessed around the clock from any location using a standard web browser and you may check on multiple offenders who are under this device. In my opinion, the ways this device can improve are that everyone who goes out to drink at the bar and were driving should wear one. If the drinker has gone over the percentage of drinking, the device should alert police officers and make sure that person isn’t driving when they leave the bar. Electronic Monitoring 24 Drug patches are another type of electronic monitoring. These devices are sometime used to monitor those convicted of violating drug laws. The drug patches are a lot similar to the SCRAMx device only difference is, once you remove the patch, it automatically tests for drugs of many kinds. The patch tests for traces of marijuana, heroin, PCP, cocaine, and methamphetamines. Just like the SCRAMx, the drug patch will alert authorities if someone has taken drugs. The drug patch is removed and replaced weekly. The patch takes the sweat and bodily fluids from the skin and hair which then is test for drugs on a scanner. House arrest comes into play here because the offender is also wearing the ankle bracelet so authorities know where the offender is located and not violating their parole release. The problem with this technology is that the cost may increase because two different types of electronic monitoring are in use at the same time. As technology becomes more advanced as the years go by, the drug patch should be just like the SCRAMx device. The drug patch should be able to report any signs of drug use to authorities right away 24/7. The drug patch should also be able to determine the location of the offender. The offender should be home or at work while under the drug patch. The final piece of technology with electronic monitoring is the basic house arrest ankle bracelet. This sentence is usually given to misdemeanor offenses and those sentenced to probation or released on parole (Howard 2001). This device is basic and it works very simple. The ankle bracelet is worn by the offender and it gives data and exact location of the offender to a base station device. The offender will most likely have a curfew and has only a certain amount of time to go to work and back home. The ankle bracelet will send off alerts to the base station and will alert authorities about the offender’s whereabouts. The bracelet will also send out an alert if the device has been tampered with or removed off the offender’s ankle. The problem with Electronic Monitoring25 the offender removing the ankle bracelet is that he or she may remove it and attach it onto an animal passing by. This can throw authorities off and confuse the location of the offender. This device can also be used on sex offenders because they may be prohibited from being around a certain area. For example, a child sex offender will receive the house arrest bracelet and may go to work, however, they may not pass by a school filled with children or minors. The ankle bracelet will alert the officials if the offender has passed by a school (Whitefield 1997). The problem with this is that the device cannot detect if children are in the area or hidden in their home. They send an officer to check but some probation officers may be careless and overlook different things. In order to advance technology in this situation, officials should order surveillance cameras in the offender’s home to check for inappropriate sexual actions or material in the home. If the offender tampers with the tapes, it will alert authorities that the offender has tampered or removed from its place (Whitefield 1997). Electronic monitoring is best source of technology for tracking down offenders placed under house arrest or taking alcohol or drugs. The technology is basic GPS satellite technology. The types of technology mentioned above are continuing to become more and more advanced as we move on. The technology has its flaws in my opinion; however, it can be useful 90 percent of the time while tracing an offender’s every step and what he or she may consume into their bodies. The SCRAMx device has to be the most useful for those who committed DWIs or those with alcoholic problems. However, in general, house arrests are a good way to rehabilitate an offender especially those who committed crimes while intoxicated. It can set them in the right state of mind and change their ways when their sentence is over. Electronic Monitoring26 Appendices Glossary House arrest- allows a person who is sentenced to a jail term to spend the time at his home as an alternative to being physically confined to jail. Electronic home detention- monitored using an electronic sensor strapped to an offender’s ankle and linked by telephone lines to a central computer which emits a continuous signal. Probation- literally means testing of behavior or abilities. In a legal sense, an offender on probation is ordered o follow certain conditions set by the court. GPS Tracker- is a device that uses the Global Positioning System to determine the precise location of a vehicle, person, or other asset to which it is attached and to record the position of the asset at regular intervals. Electric monitoring- a form of non-surreptitious surveillance consisting of an electronic device attached to a person or vehicle, especially certain criminals, allowing their whereabouts to be monitored. SCRAMx System- combines continuous alcohol monitoring (CAM) with house arrest technology in one court-validated device. Now with wireless capabilities, SCRAMx: tests for alcohol every 30 minutes, 24/7, monitors curfews and schedules, gives comprehensive information on the entire 24/7 monitoring period. Electronic Monitoring27 Bibliography Bales, W. , Mann, K. , Blomberg, T. , McManus, B. , ; Dhungana, K. (2010). Electronic Monitoring in Florida. Journal of Offender Monitoring, 22(2), 5-12. Howard, J. (2001). Electronic monitoring. The Reporter. Retrieved from http://www. johnhoward. ab. ca/newslet/may2001/May2001. pdf Whitefield, D. (1997). Tackling the tag: The electronic monitoring of offenders. Waterside Press How to cite Monitoring Offenders, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

The Pre-columbian American Peoples in the Pacific Northwest Essay Example

The Pre-columbian American Peoples in the Pacific Northwest Essay At the time when the Europeans were on a mission to colonize America, the people of America had a resilient culture. It has been statedthat the resilient culture must have resulted from the longtime interaction with their environment. Most aspects of culture are attributedto the environment in such a way that people develop norms or modes of behavior that rhyme with their immediate environment. The longer the people remain in a less dynamic environment, the more resilient a culture is bound to be. The cultural influences identified in the article authored by Kisciza include networks and the trading networks. Routine interaction with the environment is an important factor that ensures the people enhance intimacy with the environment. Ethnicity has been identifiedas a primary factor that divided the people of America and this also reflected in specific aspects of culture. What is One Example of Cultural Exchange during the Settlement of North America The European who visited America in the Pre-Hispanic period did not appreciate the cultural practices of the natives. European explorers often mistook the nativecultural practice with naivety rather than nativity. It was further documentedthat the nativesgradually adopted the influences brought by the Europeans. This marked a gradual erosion of thenative culture as well as the adoptionof a new culture. When the Europeans settled in America, their persistence ensured that the cultural resilience of the nativeswas broken. For instance, the settlement of the European missionaries and explorer was responsible for the penetration of reading and writing in America. The entrance of the Europeans was facedwith resistance due to cultural resilience among the native societies. We will write a custom essay sample on The Pre-columbian American Peoples in the Pacific Northwest specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Pre-columbian American Peoples in the Pacific Northwest specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Pre-columbian American Peoples in the Pacific Northwest specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer However, the interaction of the Europeans and the natives had different outcomes depending on aspects such as ethnicity. Variouscultural orientations have a differentperception when it comes to adoption of different cultures. Equally, cultures might have varyingdegrees of resiliencein assimilating new cultures. The Native American societies must have exhibited similar traits as they responded differently to the interactions with the Europeans. The difference in the outcomes of the interactions between the natives and the Europeans was also due to the different approaches used by the Europeans. European countries also had different cultures which imply that the application of their rule in Native America was also different. Some Europeans assimilated the natives in their settlement hencethe natives had to learn and live the European way. Possibly this was the most effectiveway of overcoming cultural resilience among the natives. On the other hand, other Europeans used force against th e natives, which included eviction. To some extent, such forces must have contributed to the toughening of nativecultural resilience. Another form of cultural resiliencethat can be identifiedin the article is the resistanceexhibited by the Europeans (Kicza). When the early European settlers went to America, they traveledalong with their culture. They were determined to break the resilience of the native culture but at the same time remained persistent to their culture. The Europeans were reported to have used all means to ensure that the nativeculture was erodedat the expense of the European culture. The situation proves that cultural resilience is a factor of cultural appreciation. In some way,it can also be termedas cultural ego where people of a particularculture recognize their culture as the best and irreplaceable. The Native Americans did not have the same cultural belief thus their resilience gradually broke down. Reference Kicza, J. E. (n.d.). Resilient Cultures.